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The History of the Gulf War has a great number of components. It basically involves the conflict in the Persian Gulf. These include internal decision making strategies as well as diplomatic, economic, and conventional military actions. This briefing primarily focuses on the intelligence, space operations and hunting aspects of the war. It also contains reports describing the effects of the Desert Storm on other nations, a document that raises several questions as to what other nations learnt from the U.S military engagements in the Middle East.
The origins of Operation Desert Storm, the U.S led coalition that forcefully removed the invading Iraqi forces of Saddam Hussein from neighboring Kuwait, are based in America’s desire to put an end to the dangerous adventurism of the Iraqi dictator and obligations to assist America’s ally, Kuwait. As noted by social scientists, Saddam’s invasion of Kuwait destabilized relations in the Middle East, and had the potential to disrupt the flow of vital oil.
In 1990, fellow Arab Gulf States refused to endorse Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein’s plan to cut production and raise the price of oil, leaving him so frustrated and paranoid. Iraqi had incurred a big debt during its war with Iran that had lasted for most of the previous decade, and the Iraqi president felt that his Arab brothers were conspiring against him by refusing to raise oil prices. Therefore after weeks of massive troops along the Iraqi-Kuwait border and accusing Kuwait of various crimes, Hussein sent out seven divisions of the Iraqi army into Kuwait. The small defenseless country was no match against Iraq. The Iraqi troops crushed Kuwait and brutalized its people.
On the morning of august 2, 1990 the mechanized tank units of the Iraqi republican guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of the whole country. The invasion triggered a United States response. This is what they called the operation shield. To deter any invasion of Kuwait’s oil rich neighbor, Saudi Arabia. On august 7, deployment of U.S forces began. On august 20, president bush signed national security directive 45, outlining U.S objectives which included the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait. This also includes the restoration of Kuwait’s legitimate government to replace the puppet regime that was initially installed by Iraqi.
The crucial element of the Persian Gulf War was the Iraqi launch of its modified scud missiles. Iraqi usually obtained scud missiles, along with much of the rest of their military equipment, from their producer, the Soviet Union. Basic data is provided on various aspects of the scud, including its range, payload, warhead type as well as its accuracy. It also provides information on the background of the missile based on the U.S material exploitation of these scuds.
Regarding Iraq’s actions as a threat to vital interest of the U.S, the oil production capability of the Persian Gulf region, President George bush ordered warplanes and ground forces to Saudi Arabia. Operation desert shield, the U.S military deployment to first defend Saudi Arabia grew rapidly to become the largest American deployment since the South East Asia Conflict. The gulf region was within us central command’s area of responsibility. Eventually, 30 nations joined the military coalition arrayed against Iraq, with another 18 countries supplying economic, humanitarian and other types of assistance.
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Using radio equipment, computers, radio messages were passed between headquarters. In addition, smoke generators and loudspeakers playing tape recorded tank and truck noises were used, as were inflatable Humvees and helicopters. On 17 January 1991, when it became clear that Saddam Hussein would not withdraw, Desert Shield became Desert Storm. Operation Desert Storm began as allied forces answered Iraq’s silence. Coalition aircraft bombed key Iraqi military targets such as command and communication centers, Missiles launch sites, radar facilities and airports as well as runways.
During this war, Iraqi fired 88 modified scuds at Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. These attacks on Israel threatened to provoke Israel into a counterattack, which the U.S wished to avoid for fear of shuttering the allied coalition. From the beginning, the war destruction of Iraqi represented a high priority for U.S and allied forces. This later made them conclude that the lessons they learnt during Operation Desert Storm can provide the framework for developing a most effective, realistic approach targeting Third World ballistic missiles and Soviet mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles in the future.
In the whole event of desert storm and desert shield, there is a clear indication of the role of technology in the war. Basically, it is seen to have helped to a larger extent the success and the overall performance of troops in the event of either attacks or defenses. This can evidently be seen in the equipment that was employed and the various techniques the troops used to reach out to each other in times of need.
I can say that the key element in the allied success of the Persian Gulf War was the technology that was employed by the U.S. Air campaigns marked the first major use of the F-117A, Nighthawk. This technology, in addition to covering events related to the F-117A deployments and operations, provided a day to day, wave by wave account of operations against Iraqi forces. My assessment on the operations and impact of those space operations excludes classified imagery. It does focus on the use of Defense Support Program, Global Positioning, Defense Meteorological and Satellite Program.
The overwhelming speedy victory of the U.S- led coalition, along with the minimal casualties suffered, in the Persian Gulf War caught the attention of many countries globally. Among the components of the allied victory noted by foreign forces and military leaders was the reliance in high-tech weaponry. Therefore it was a big opportunity for other nations to learn through these operations. Technology in this particular case provided a much more assurance to the American forces as well as the allied nations. The war involved attacks and defenses, whereby technology was part and parcel of the whole process.
Within the period of the war, deadlines for peace were among the communicative elements through the fighting nations. Fro example, after the U.N Security Council’s peaceful resolution with Iraq proved futile, storm began the following day. Within ten days of offensive operations, air sorties reached the ten thousand mark. The coalition’s intensive air power had crippled Iraq’s nuclear, biological and chemical weapons development programs, its offensive air and ballistic missile capability and its internal state control mechanisms.
Although hostilities ceased with Iraqi’s defeat, Saddam Hussein agreed to the terms of the U.N Security Council resolution that the conflict was declared officially over. The contribution of technology to thus war can be said to have been very objective because it has been seen that the war eventually calmed down due to the defeat of Iraqi. Among those nations that had learnt an instant lesson were those that were involved in the war. These included Iraqi and Saudi Arabia. If evaluation is done today on the military capabilities of these countries, it will be found that the nations have developed their military systems due to the weapons they met during the Persian Gulf War.
The effect of the technological application in the operation storm made nations to improve their military equipment. Among other causes that the gulf war might have brought were the effects of the bombs. These might to a larger extent affected the biological outcomes in humanity as well as the deaths that were involved. Destructions of Iraqis property were a major injury to Iraqi’s economy.
Though the Iraqis tried to use soviet military doctrine, their implementation failed due to the lack of skill of their commanders. Technology must have taught them a big lesson because it is believed that training of their military commanders was their first priority after the war. Below is a slide show of equipment that was used in the war by the fighting nations.
I can therefore say that the amazing array of complex technology was brought into play at the start to assure a devastating air war. Precision guided missiles, night vision devices, infrared navigation among other equipment helped make around the clock bombing possible. It can be clearly deduced the effect of this war was a general awakening call both in military departments as well as individuals across the globe.
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