Databases are the center of our economy and it usage is widely spread in our daily life. For instance every piece of personal information is stored in a database such as medical records, employment history, bank accounts, pensions, college grades and even list of groceries to be brought. Databases are important as it serves the data for our use as well as protecting the data.
Database planning and creation
Database planning requires a systematic approach in the design of the database. This will save the designer a lot of time and work and ensure that the database meets the intended specification. To begin with, the purpose of the database has to be defined. This is done by evaluating the needs of the client as needs of clients differ and this call for different models. At this stage, the designer needs to communicate with the clients so as to clarify the range of the intended database (Knox 2004).
Secondly, the designer has to identify the central objects or entities that will be handled by the database. The object can be a real thing, such as an individual or a product, or intangible thing such as a business transaction. This stage is vital as each discrete item will have a corresponding table in the database in design. Object modeling is then done where the proposed database is represented visually and act as a reference during the design and creation process. For this process, a database developer may use pen and paper or even complex software used for modeling such as Rational Rose. After this, the data type of each object identified beforehand is determined and noted down so as to ensure that the database has the correct data such as raw data columns and categorical columns (MSDN). Another crucial step is identification of the type of relationships between tables. Relationship are important as it ensures that data is effectively used in the database. Relationships helps the database management software to aggregate isolated data when need be. Database creation follows this stage where database are crated using software tools called database management system such as MSSQL and MYSQL. However, in all these instances, Structured Query language statements are used. During database creation process, naming convention must be adhered to and proper documentation developed. However, the database has to be tested with test data to ensure it working as envisioned before its deployment (Muller 2001).
Database security and maintenance
Database security is central to ensuring that data is not stolen, corrupted or altered by mistakes or without authorization. Security can be achieved through the use of user accounts where accountability is ensured. These accounts will also restrict the action a user can perform as well as resource available. Protecting the network against attacks by use of firewalls is necessary. Database maintenance is crucial in ensuring that the data is up-to-date, secure and that the database is fast and effective. Maintenance entails perform backups of data and restoration of lost or corrupted data. Optimization of data is also done using automated scripts or manually in order to make the database more effective and responsive (Litchfield et al. 2005).
A good database suits a clients intended purpose, is easy to update and maintain and server the right data to users in an organization. Password and accounts with varying privileges enforces security of data and uphold its credibility. A good and secure database will save companies on cost as it will be highly available, scalable and effective in delivery of data necessary for running and growth of an organization.
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