Global warming refers to when the earth heats up- temperature rises. It takes place when greenhouse gases- water vapor, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane- trap heat and light from the sun in the atmosphere of the earth which leads to temperature increase. This injures many people, plants and animals across the earth. Since many of them cannot take the change, they usually die. Greenhouse gases refers to gases which are in the earth’s atmosphere and ones that collect heat and light from the sun. The earth’s atmosphere will therefore trap a lot of heat thus earth getting too hot if there are too many greenhouse gases in the air. Consequently, plants, animals and people would die because the heat would be very strong.
The idea of the earth being basically a closed system, with the sun’s radiant energy being the only net addition, has started to be comprehended broadly. For instance, a physical and linear reaction is described by the third law of motion which states that there is an equal and opposite reaction for every action although there are also non-linear ones including enzymes, chemicals, among others that generate other numerous non-linear impacts from any one action as a result. It is therefore a formidable challenge to model such complexity since every set of solutions adds to the mix of variables (Abdullah, 2005).
According to Adamson & Sagar (2002), much scientific efforts towards understanding climatic change have therefore been spawned by this reality. The intricacy of global air circulation, in addition to its interactions with land and water ecological systems, incorporated with human activities, has resulted to concerns regarding the effects of these anthropogenic factors. Apparently, the climate of the world has been changing daily, although this has been the case for ever. The degree at which human activities especially in the form of greenhouse gases are affecting natural change is the only think that is less certain. Some propose that it is important, some predict fewer effects, yet others assert that the science of modeling such complexity is not adequately reliable to be the basis of lasting decision-making.
It is reasonable to at least to identify selected procedures to reduce common extreme emissions to improve atmospheric conditions even with this uncertainty. This is supposed to be done so as to assure enough energy for the future without disrupting environmental, energy or economical conditions to the stage where human survival suffers a lot when compared to if nothing is done. in many parts of the world, human populations have started to level off or reduce due to urbanization partly thus a chance to find a balance amongst all the three factors appear to be possible.
Adamson & Sagar (2002) assert that the long periods of time spend to create an alternate sources implies that many important decisions are supposed to be made in the following decade, and cannot be left to take place since outcomes can be catastrophic. Oil reserves are not popular as many would like to suggest, since the truth is that new reserves might well mean higher costs and environmental and economic that before. The recent release of oil to the gulf’s waters of Mexico from pipe failure and rig explosion, and its associated lasting economic and environmental costs, geographically shows to the connections and implications amongst the energy, environment and energy also referred to as the three E’s. It also raises too late the question of how realistic risk management is supposed to be.
The truth of clean coal up to now exists widely in the minds of coal companies and resolutions to this environmental jeopardy are not anticipated in the medium term even though coal reserves bound. In most places, wind and solar energies are expensive and unreliable and increases considerable resources in the location, operation and construction (Adelman, 2002). They will be significant players although can’t substitute huge reliable sources which societies depend on until when better means are created to keep and release energy emitted from sources having variable characteristics of supply. Hydropower is obviously effective and economical and there are is also existence of many additional sites. However, these arte supposed to be examined in the terms of what is earned against what is lost, and against other options.
Nuclear energy is left by this. There is lack of adequate public consciousness of nuclear energy. Knowledge that is widely in existence is highly negative, and is in regard to the large principle on everything from Hiroshima to Chernobyl. In fact, nuclear energy can be highly safer and reliable when compared to the new oil, for instance. The positives aspects of the nuclear alternative have been missed as a result of an outdated conventional wisdom that is not safe to inhale.
Adelman (2002) stipulates that inter alia, hydrogen, geothermal and biomass are other energy sources and products. All can play a major role but in a more selective and special applications due to their very nature. An integrated long-term direction is needed by the integrated nature of energy, the constantly changing overall world ecological system and economy and environment, in combination with the powerful interest of government, public and private sectors. There is existence of choices and all have got both positive and negative impacts. These will change throughout the country, but decisions are supposed to be made almost immediately due to the fact that the long time period from decision to an operating scheme is well beyond the political time frame used by a 4-5 year election period (Agyeman & Evans, 2003). Nevertheless, there have been political leaders in the past who have been far sighted adequately to stand up for longer term requirements of the nation.
Criticism generated by a conventional wisdom in regard to the emotional publicity originating from special activist/interest groups with no obvious interest in objectivity is the difficult political obstacle today. These groups came into existence early on as a growth out of conservation movement, and offered a much required other view from strong industry voices. Since then, they have enlarged to the point where membership is huge although not a closely connected to the science like initially, thus may press single reason issues in absence of benefits of direct analysis (Agyeman & Evans, 2003). This kind of peopleplay a significant role by making sure that both specific and emotional queries are identified but they usually don’t put into consideration the truth that tradeoffs and decisions are essential to avoid complete crumple of an integrated environment, economic and energy systems. The wrong long-term policy such as lack of energy policy can result to this kind of chaos.
A proposal to develop an Energy Policy for Canada
Tackling this lasting issue is complicated as it requires a powerful critical capability joined with an incorporated political interview at the most superior point (Akhurst, 2003). The procedure for policy growth should provide for clear information and discussion on selection and effects while respecting doctrines of flexibility, environmental sustainability, financial feasibility and addition.
First, the political leadership and direction should come from the ministers. The incorporated nature of this matter comprising of environment and finance and environment makes this the major significant single rule consideration ever since the first days of Confederation. Management and guidance for a National Environmental, Economic and Energy Policy should emerge from a First Ministers’ Council on Canada 2050 (FMCC). The Council must value constitutional tasks established in the Constitution Act 1982 which includes sections 91 and 92 by yearly revolving the responsibility of chair amongst the associates (Akhurst, 2003). There will be need for essential political direction for no less than ten years. The responsibility of investigation and information sharing requires to be done by a fairly small group referred to as “The Canada 2050 Group”, selected by the FMCC.
According to Albrecht & Francois (2002), they would be the sincere agent to review actual options and preserves as well as suggestions for energy within Canada for both domestic use and export in a perspective of environmental and economical duty. They would afterward supply the information to the public through different fore, possibly together with one or more countrywide forums. The results will grant a scientific and policy framework for debate amongst all authorities as policy is expanded and energy conclusions are made. The sincere agent entity would be permitted to carry out an analysis of Canada-wide energy requirements, export possibilities and options and variability in preferences. Still it requires access to all information presented to governments, regional and central on the issues including that of private segment businesses where commercial privacy is not influenced even if access to more of this might be discussed with suitable confidentiality situations.
Albrecht & Francois (2002) state that the responsibilities include designing a work plans to independently review that involves using environment, economic and energy criteria. Future energy requirement connected to current and possible sources over time stages of five, ten, fifteen, twenty, twenty five and forty years. It is necessary foundation information to realize the extent of the problems and possibilities joined with the long time frame between a conclusion being made and energy being produced. There is already existence of much of data for this but requires to be confirmed incorporated and accumulated in a steady system.
Another responsibility is to recognize long term technology investigation priorities together with storage such as hydrogen production and allocation inducement like timing, carbon tax and pricing which would enlarge the variety of sensible options over the lasting and provide ways to put Canada in the forefront on industrial application of new energy and storage allocation schemes.
In addition, the responsibilities include initiating information sharing procedures with concerned organizations and the general public for research results and possible future guidance is clearly available. The procedure could provide consideration to a countrywide conference on the matter with objective setting papers on all sensible topics prepared earlier and clear media reporting of the event for the profit of every Canadian (AlFaris, 2002)
Creating a White Paper on Energy Policy and Strategy for the country to serve as an investigation baseline for conclusion making by all parties engaged in the energy sector. It gives each party a foundation from which to invent a successful energy approach for their certain case with a background within which to work together with others where suitable. The secretariat of Canada 2050 Group referred to above must be amplified by scientific assistance through executive transactions from governments, the corporate, special segments and educational institutions for full complete consideration of all aspects. There would be possibility for those involved to return to their home foundation with wider understanding and outlook.
Other alternatives exist for deal with this matter but they have their restrictions. For instance, a Royal Commission could take on the duty of investigation and discussion but unless it was exclusively prepared to have the assistance of all superior governments, it would not have the access required to perform an all-inclusive job (AlFaris, 2002).
The federal Government could try to perform it on its own but there is need for one to remember what happened at Kyoto where without any discussion with the provinces, Canada suggested and agreed to limit on greenhouse gas secretion that was known at the moment be unachievable yet made good temporary political capital for the prime Minister of the day.
According to Dobson (1981), the superior governments could do it through an intergovernmental team but it is the model that got the UN into a lot of problems with many contributors carrying with them political places that put science aside. It could be hard for credibility.
The support of provincial and federal governments is necessary but there is also the call for an honest broker to run and guide the procedure. The secretariat’s staff should have qualified people appointed from the governments, public interest groups, academic community and industry baasing on their critical and communicating techniques and their character for scientific honesty. The country should move toward a durable view of energy requirements and alternatives within the context of its future economic and environment viability. Consistent uncombined initiatives are leading Canada into a long term situation of lower standards of living and compromise worldwide competitiveness.
The Current Unsustainable Situation
Lack of energy policy leads results into various situations. For example, ad hoc proposals on the industry parts, personal provinces and municipalities and individuals will increase chaos and ineffectiveness (Dobson, 1981). Huge savings that take too many years to come completion will also happen and cash savings will go somewhere else. Failure of cooperation at all stages creates possibility for efficient income and suitable matching of supply to demand.
The Political Reality-Energy
The temporary time between elections in Canada which is about four years makes it hard to anticipate political parties to take lasting decisions without powerful public views on their side. Presently, the conventional knowledge on energy issues seems to land on preferred personal projects with no complete and logical context.
The outcome is a range of apparently ad hoc schemes that seem to handle matters of public interest but in actual fact are temporary in nature and frequent counter to longer term needs. The funding on purchase of electric cars in Ontario is a good example for this since is the run to build wind farms in Manitoba and Ontario and solar units in Ontario though they are disreputably costly and undependable requiring offset power sources to pay off for down periods. In Manitoba’s case, low-priced electric power exists in the north but the government seems firm to augment costs to customers to emerge to be green (Books, LLC, 2010). As much as hydro power elsewhere is measured green, Ontario encounters a critical future electrical power shortage yet gives inducements to use extra electricity through sponsoring the purchase of electric cars. Newfoundland Labrador and Quebec have differed for decades over a lopsided transaction powerfully favoring Quebec on power transmission with the effect that development of clean power from the lower Churchill has been delayed for a long time. It is also likely that more expensive general transmission lines will require to be established elsewhere due to the obvious gluttony and arrogance of Quebec and its Hydro domination that is run as is Manitoba’s case as a direct government’s policy instrument.
Books, LLC (2010) asserts that British Columbia has currently decided to go on with another main dam on the Peace (a task that will be in construction for years). There will be need for Alberta to consider new approaches to generate hydrogen manufacture for the oil sands to oppose international view that using natural gas simply adds needlessly too much CO2 to the atmosphere. So powerful is the international reaction that it is clear something has to be done to advance international relations in general and specific markets for export. Possibly power from current wind farms could produce the hydrogen while winds are powerful enough to produce power rather than disturb electricity delivery and running with changeable power accessibility. CO2 from natural gas used for hydrogen for the oil sands could be considerably decreased.
There will also be the need for Saskatchewan to consider optional sources to their old coal fired generators (McDougall, 1983). Premier Wall backed down from an initial idea that nuclear power sounded logic there, but all other variable alternatives causes green gas emissions unless a negotiation is made to import hydro power from Manitoba. New Brunswick is encountering electrical power hardships and Nova Scotia in recent years has gone through many outages resulting from storms.
The above does not tackle the transportation section that has its own particular requirements and related implications together with inter Alai, economy, emissions, amounts and support to severe factoring of all environmental effects. A large nation like Canada carries a large energy need simply to work and perform (Doern et al., 2001). The processing of main energy and their subsequent effects on transportation like transporting crude oil to the Gulf of Mexico factories exposes them to storms. This needs an industrial policy that aids definite value-added activities located nearer to home to reduce emissions and not as an obstruction to trade.
All Canada regions are in need of lasting methods to meeting their energy requirements within a background that takes financial and environmental realities into consideration. Even if the UN has not dealt with international assessment very well, it is at least trying to struggle with the very complicated matter. Canada ca not goes on with ad hoc reactions to personal conditions or repeating a US strategy which is in turn not well expanded. The lasting nature of suitable action needs a strategic countrywide approach within which each authority can find ways to address its requirements for the long period. Huge doubling at provincial and nationwide levels as well as in the corporate section is costly and has not served Canada properly.
Businesses call for taking energy into consideration particularly those who use large volumes of power and contribute considerably to greenhouse gas emissions. They require getting out in front of the matter and not simply reacting to proceedings as they happen. The recent Gulf of Mexico oil pipe rupture fiasco is clear proof of that. A countrywide energy review as a basis for plan and strategies is serious at this level. The effects of well-intended but wrong conclusions are costly and do little to have actual effect on energy provision and environmental value. As a large and diverse country, with many jurisdictions and huge corporate interests, Canada should have a new comprehensive way to energy policy required and guided by a new structural entity performing the honest broker duty.