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Question 1: Explain the Terms

A. Byte: A byte is an arrangement of adjacent binary digits that are operated on by a computer. These binary digits are eight in number. Most computers use bytes to represent characters such as a letters, numbers and typographical symbols. A byte may hold a string of bits that are needed for larger units of application purposes.

B. Field: A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size. In some contexts, a field can be subdivided into smaller fields. Here are some examples: A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size. In some contexts, a field can be subdivided into smaller fields. Here are some examples: A field is  a part of  a known or fixed location   in a unit of data such as a computer instruction  or a record. It normally has an aim and is fixed in size. There are cases where, a field can be subdivided further into smaller fields. A good example being is in the case of a database table where a field is said to be a data structure for a single piece of data. And it is organized into records, containing all the information in the table that is relevant to a specific entity

C. File: A file in data processing is said to be a collection of related records. These records on the other hand consist of fields for each individual data item, for example customer name, customer number, among others.

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D. Internet: The Internet is the most well know and largest implement of client/server computing and internetworking, linking hundreds of thousand of individual networks all over the world, which turn service over 600 million individual PCs or host computer

E. World Wide Web – is the most popular Internet service. It is a system with universally accepting standard for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information using client/server architecture. Web pages formatted using hypertext with embedded links that connect documents to one other and that also link pages to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files

F. Database a database is defined as a collection of information organized for easy access, management, and manipulation. Databases may be e classified according to their content or organizational behavior.

Question 2:  Explain different types of Databases?

Analytical Databases

This kind of databases store information obtained from operation databases or external databases. This is data that is screened and edited for use by management of the organization .Its main purpose is to allow the user to analyze the data.

Operational Databases

Operational databases stores information that is needed for the operations. This data usually contains detailed information about a particular person, department or subject.

As the name suggests, data warehouse is a large collection of data extracted from various other databases.

Distributed Databases

These are types of databases that are distributed in various geographic locations. The databases may either be common to all the sites or specific to that local site only.

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End User Database

This database results from various operations that the user performs on different types of databases.an example of this is spreadsheets or word documents.

External Database

This is an online access to external and privately owned data

Hypermedia Database

Hypermedia database includes of a group of interconnected multimedia web pages. Where information is stored online and can be accessed by several users at a time.

Question 3:  Draw the Diagram showing Data Hierarchy. Also, Explain the Difference between Entity and Attribute?

An entity   is said to be a single person, place, or thing about which data can be stored. A good example being the entity or table STUDENT which has details like student name, address class among others. An entity may have a relationship with other entities. For example entity STUDENT may have relationship with COURSE entity. A database stores all the values of entities and relationships. On the other hand an attribute is a characteristic of an existing entity it can be divided to two attribute instance and attribute type.

Question 4: What is normalization?  How is it related to the features of a well-designed relational database? 

Normalization is the process of making small stable data structures from complex groups of data when designing a relational database. Normalization reorganizes relational database design by removing useless data like repeating groups. A well-designed relational database will be organized around the information needs of the business and will probably be in some normalized form. A database that is not normalized will have problems with processes like insertion, deletion, and modification

Question 5: Describe and briefly comment on the major management challenges in building a database environment.

The major management challenge involved in a database environment is the task of managing such an important resource.  A database is an organizational method it is not just simple data management technology.  It needs a lot of organizational and concrete change.  The commitment and understanding by the Management is essential for the proper development of the database.     In order fro the management to counter this it needs to implement four organizational elements to the database environment which include:  data administration function, data planning and modelling methodology and database technology and management

Question 6: What is a telecommunications system? What are the principal functions of all telecommunications systems?

A Telecommunication system consists of components over which signals are transmitted over a distance purposefully for the sake of communication between two different devises. A telecommunication system has a remote administration function, whereby a virtual terminal that has the properties of a terminal having administration authorization is defined. Data streams from and to the virtual terminal upon being diverted to a remote computer that is connected to the telecommunication system. The principle function of a communication system is to create a means whereby data and information can be sent through two or more communicating devises.

Question 7: Define Different Network Topologies along with the Specific Diagram?

Bus networks uses a single cable referred to as the   backbone as a shared communication medium that devices attach to using an interface connector. For a  device  to communicate to another  on the network  it sends a broadcast message to the backbone that all other devices are able to see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

Ring Topology In a ring network, every device has   two neighbors and can communicate to either directly. Messages move through a ring in the same direction. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and may take down the entire network.

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A star network has a central connection point which can be a hub, switch or router. All Devices connect to the hub individually. Therefore failure in one star network cable will affect only one computer but if the hub fails so does the whole network.

Tree topologies use multiple star topologies together with bus topology. At its least form, only the hub devices connect directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the root of some devices.

Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Messages sent on a mesh network may take any of several possible paths from source to destination.

Question 8: List some of the benefits of a DBMS.

-Data base management system ensures flexibility this is because the programs and the data are independent. This is shown that programs do not undergo modification when the physical storage changes.

-DBMS ensures a faster response in cases if information requests this is because data is integrated into a single database enabling complex requests to be handled much more rapidly. This is not possible if the data is located in separate, files that are not integrated.

- DBMS ensures multiple accesses this is because the Database software permits data to be retrieved in a variety of ways and especially by several programming languages.

-DBMS ensures Lower user training costs. Many Users normally find it easier to understand as such costs for training are reduced. This increases user productivity.

-In a DBMS all incidences of data items only need to be stored once, this eliminates storage of redundant data.

Question 9: Draw the diagram explaining TCP/IP Model also Draw and explain the Functioning of MODEM.

Modem and its functioning

A modem works by modulating the digital signals going out of a computer or other types of digital devices to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and then demodulates an incoming analog signal thereby converting it to a digital signal for the digital device.

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