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Bluetooth is a wireless technology which is used for creating personal networks and operates in the 2.4GHz unlicensed band through a range of not more than 10 meters. These networks are usually formed from portable devices like cellular phones, handhelds, laptops etc Bluetooth is used invarious items and products like the iPod touch, telephones, play station 3, modems, PSP Go, some high definition headset among many more. The term bluetooth was derived from the Norwegian king  Harald Bluetooth Gormson. This technology was initially meant at unifying the telecom and the industrial sector. It can be thought to be a technology which came to replace the cable technology.  The technology is useful when transferring information between two or more devices that are near each other in low-bandwidth situations. Bluetooth is commonly used to transfer sound data with telephones (i.e., with a Bluetooth headset) or byte data with hand-held computers (transferring files). Bluetooth usually creates a personal-area network which is just for  personal use. This is in contrast to the local-area networkor the wide-area network.

It was created by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994 which was conceived as a wireless   alternative to the RS-232 data cables. It uses a radio technology which is called frequency –hopping spread spectrum .In this technology, the data which is being sent is chopped into chunks of up to 79 bands which is approximately 1 MHz each. Bluetooth technology specifications are usually developed and then licensed by the Bluetooth Special International Group. This group consists of more than 13,000 companies which are in the fields of telecommunication, computing, networking, and also related consumer electronics. Any device which needs to be marketed as a Bluetooth device has to get approved by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Bluetooth can connect with more than eight devices at the same time and without the devices interfering with one another’s data transfer. This is made possible due to the fact that it uses the spread-spectrum frequency hopping which renders it impossible for more than one device to be transferring things on the same frequency at the same time.

Although Bluetooth low energy consumer will be able to coexist with any classic Bluetooth enabled devices, it will nevetheless not be able to relay communication with them. Therefore ,this makes the  Bluetooth low energy  not to be a  backward compatible with any classic Bluetooth enabled  devices, but instead  will be compatible with  the newer dual-mode devices. For instance , for any  mobile phone to be able to communicate and enable data transfer  with Bluetooth low energy devices in addition to classic Bluetooth devices  ike the Bluetooth headsets, a dual-mode chip will be needed.

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Bluetooth has became very widely used  and is getting popular as time passes by. This technology is becoming popular across countries and everyone is benefitting from this technology. It is now widely used across countries and almost by everyone.Most companies are taking the advantage of this technology  intheir new and future products hence making life really easy for everyone. In the near future ,most technology will be wireless ,thanks to the advances in bluetooth technology.This technology is curentlly dominant and  is expected to gain higher grounds.  Bluetooth can be used on laptops , music players , cell phones , printers amd many more. Another good thing about this technology is that , you don’t need to  know much about the new technology in order to use bluetooth. This is made possible by the simplicity of the technlogy making it easy to use by many. It’s simpilicity in use andthe fact that it’s wireless  makes it  to be widely used and popular.

An exceptional advantage of using bluetooth technology is the fact that it is a free of charge technology. There is no extra cell phone needed  in order  to operate in this technology. All that is neede is a device which is compatible and you are done. There has not been any case of any company charging any amount for one to be able to use it. There hasn't been any reporting lately on companies charging a monthly fee or any fee for people to use the Bluetooth feature and It’s don't expect it.  This technology has made people to go wireless by the use of cordless  devices.  And although there are few cords which may be neede ,they are not as many as if there were no bluetooth technology. One is able to access internet  through the use of this technology. Another  major role of blue tooth technology is the fact that one  gains control of their data transfer within the keep of  information private. The personalizing of data sharing is enabled  by the fact that for one to receive communication ,an access code has to entered by bot users.

Bluetooth has a lot to offer with an increasingly difficult market place. Bluetooth helps to bring with it the promise of freedom from the cables and simplicity in networking that has yet to be matched by LAN (Local Area Network). In the key marketplace, of wireless and handheld devices, the closest competitor to Bluetooth is infrared. Infrared holds many key features, although the line of sight it provides doesn't go through walls or through obstacles like that of the Bluetooth technology. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth isn't a line of sight and it provides ranges of up to 10meters. Bluetooth is also low power and low processing with an overhead protocol. What this means, is that it's ideal for integration into small battery powered devices. To put it short, the applications with Bluetooth are virtually endless. It has become a world-wide accepted standard which is been adapted by more than 2000 manufacturers on various gadgets like the laptops, music players, headsets, printers and so much more.

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It’s a cheap technology to implement and so most companies are capitalizing to lowering their cost to consumers. This is due to that the technology itself is license free and hence doesn’t cost any amount to transfer data. It’s not a line of sight technology like infrared and so not affected by obstacles and could be with ranges of up to 10 meters for class 1 devices. It’s also a low powered technology as it uses a low power 2.4GHz band. It avoids interference from other wireless devices even if they sharing the same bandwidth which ensures crystal clear communication with error free data transfer. It is also a simple and easy to use technology where the users need to be in the allowable range . The users still have the ability to make their data sharing private by accepting or rejecting requests .Voice/data access points will allow, for example, mobile phone/Internet connections.  Cable is replaced by a Bluetooth chip that transmits information at a special radio frequency to a receiver Bluetooth chip.  Ad hoc networking  gives authorization to personal exchange of information. For example, appointments made on a PDA calendar automatically appear on a desktop calendar as well.

Although Bluetooth has a low power consumption it can use up more battery power if left on, this comes as a concern on the use of phones. Infrared technology has data rates of about 4MBps which delivers very faster rates of transfer which is in contrast with Bluetooth which has only up to 2.1MBPs. Sometimes using Bluetooth technology in internet the connection may be very slow. There is wastage of battery power mostly for cell phones and music players when Bluetooth is left on .This can be avoided by ensuring that the devices through which the Bluetooth technology is used are switched off. And since it only takes a short time to enable and disable, then user can be able to avoid the wastage of battery power. A set back to this technology could at times be the slow transfer.

Bluetooth has several positive features and one would be extremely hard pressed to find downsides when given the current competition. The only real downsides are the data rate and security. Infrared can have data rates of up to 4 MBps, which provides very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth only offers 1 MBps.

For this very reason, infrared has yet to be dispensed with completely and is considered by many to be the complimentary technology to that of Bluetooth. Infrared has inherent security due to its line of sight. The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of Bluetooth make it much more open to interception and attack. For this reason, security is a very key aspect to the Bluetooth specification. Although there are very few disadvantages, Bluetooth still remains the best for short range wireless technology. Those who have tried it love it, and they know for a fact that Bluetooth will be around for years to come.

Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard which works to two major levels. For one it provides an agreement at the physical level and behaving as a radio-frequency standard. Another way in which they operate , is by providing  an agreement at the protocol  level  where the concerned products have to agree on when and how the data is been transferred.  The major difference between Bluetooth wireless connectivity and the cellular radio architectureis that Bluetooth enables ad hoc networking. Rather than depending on a broadband system, which relies on terminals and base stations for maintaining connections to the network via radio links, Bluetooth implements peer-to-peer connectivity — no base stations or terminals are involved.

Bluetooth headsets:

A Bluetooth headset is a combination of both the hand-free headset and the Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth headset normally benefits from the normal life where the users are able to make calls at the same time composing e-mails. A user could also receive a call while driving or doing others house chores. Hence there is no disturbance of the moving long cables around. An added advantage of using Bluetooth headset is the less effect it has on human being’s health which has less effect than normal phones through its electromagnetic waves. So if a person is a frequent mobile phone user Bluetooth becomes the better option.

When this technology is applied in a tandem together with a Bluetooth –enabled cell phone, one can perform various mobile phone functions using an in-ear Bluetooth headset while the cell phone is still in the pocket.

Bluetooth technology also provides fast, secure voice and data transmissions. The range for connectivity is up to 10 meters, and line of sight is not required. The Bluetooth radio unit.  Functions even in noisy radio environments, ensuring audible voice transmissions in severe conditions. Protects data by using error-correction methods. Provides a high transmission rate.  Encrypts and authenticates for privacy purposes.

Bluetooth is able to provide confidentiality, authentication as well as the key derivation which uses the custom algorithms based on the safer and block cipher.Bluetooth key generation is basically implemented under the use of the bluetooth PIN which must be entered and marched on both devices for them to be connected. When pairing with another device, a master key or an initialization key is developed by the use of the E22 algorithm. Then the E0 stream cipher is employed for the encrypting packets thereby granting the confidentiality through the shared cryptographic secret generated from the previously master key. Therefore those keys which are used for subsequent encryption of data sharing via the same air interface relies on bluetooth PIN which was entered any of the devices or in both. Security has been so much influential to the invention of the Bluetooth technology.

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The Standard International  Group  has gone the extra mile in ensuring that this technology is secure and dependable . The basic bluetooth security is essentially grouped into three classes ; the non secure level, the service level enabled security and the link level enabled security.  For non-secure, Bluetooth device does not envoke  any security measures. In  a service-level enabled  security mode,  for two Bluetooth devices can  be able to establish a connection which is nonsecure  known as Asynchronous Connection-Less link. The Security procedures  involved are  authentication then  authorization and  thereby followed by optional encryption, are in. The difference between service level enforced security and link level enforced security is that in the latter, the Bluetooth device initiates security procedures before the channel is established.

As mentioned above, Bluetooth security procedures include authorization, authentication and optional encryption. Authentication involves proving the identity of a computer or computer user, or in Bluetooth.s case, proving the identity of one piconet member to another. Authorization is the process of granting or denying access to a network resource. Encryption is the translation of data into secret code. It is used between Bluetooth devices so that eavesdroppers can not read its contents. However, even with all of these defense mechanisms in place, Bluetooth has shown to have some security risks. The next section of this paper will describe some of these vulnerabilities associated with Bluetooth technology  Connection-Oriented or Connection-Less channel request is made.

Bluesnarfing is a method of hacking into a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone and copying its entire contact book, calendar or anything else stored in the phone.  Memory. By setting the device in non-discoverable, it becomes significantly more difficult to find and attack the device. Companies such as Nokia and Sony Ericsson are making sure new phones coming to market will not be susceptible to bluesnarfing.

Bluetooth wireless is constantly growing in popularity because of the convenience of exchanging information between mobile devices. As Bluetooth usage rises, so do the security risks associated with the technology. Advantages to Bluetooth include the ability to handle simultaneously both  voice and data transmissions thereby enabling  users to enjoy  variety of innovation solutions such as a hands-free headset for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronizing PDA, laptop, and mobile phone applications. Bluetooth users should familiarize themselves with Bluetooth security issues before using Bluetooth devices, and especially before they bring these devices into the work place.

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