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Sociology

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Each society has a collective inclination towards suicide. The rules of sociological method, exterior to individual and exercising a coercive effect upon him are determined by reflection of the structure of the society in which an individual is living. This essay will examine different sociological theories from Durkheim's Suicide, Karl Marx and ax Weber.

Durkheim’s suicide

Durkheim found that some personal phenomenon like suicide could establish a sociological phenomenon. He found out that suicide rates were egoistic, altruistic or anomic.  Egoistic suicides are higher among individuals like the divorced, singles or widows. This is explained by the fact that individuality is overshadowed when ties to one’s community are too strong. Altruistic suicide is more common under different social circumstances. The last one, anomic suicide, is common under a third set of social circumstances i.e. when conditions in which people are organized to change dramatically which may result in alienation, despair and hopelessness. Thus here he demonstrates that the primary causes of suicide were social (Durkheim E. and Simpson G. 1951).

According to Durkheim, structural functionalism is a consensus theory that sees society as interrelating to each other, built upon order and as a means of balancing and maintaining a smooth function of the whole society. Conflict theory is the opposite of structural functionalism and focuses on the some groups dominating over the others who manipulates the social order and sees the subordinate groups as wanting to overthrow them so as to not only change the system but also create equality.

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Manifestos of the communist party and proletarians and communists

The society we live in arranged in antagonistic classes. These orders are from the earlier epochs of history that have been formed new but established classes of struggle and oppression. The bourgeoisie uses their financial muscle to exploit the proletarian. The bourgeoisie means a class of modern capitalists or employers and owners of labor. The proletariat is the class of modern laborers who have to work in order to live (Marx & Engels 1848). In chapter two, it is claimed that the unlike the above arrangement, the communists do not form separate opposition classes or sectarian principles which shapes and moulds the proletarian movements. The aim of communists is the same as that of proletarians; form a class that can overthrow the bourgeois supremacy and take the power (Marx & Engels 1848).  Historical materialism was developed by Marxist; it is based on the fact that history occurs through clash or opposing forces. Here Marxist argues that historically and socially, some ideologies prevent people from seeing clearly the material condition of their lives.

Religious Affiliation and Social Stratification

The catholic press and literature in Germany has been provoked by statistics showing that the higher technically and modern entrepreneurs are mostly protestants. This is replicated in almost all capitalist states especially at the time of great expansion. This has been explained by the fact that religious minorities which are in subordination political positions are driven by into economic activity by peculiar force. The number of Protestants in higher institution is higher than Catholics who prefer courses which human gymnasium affords hence less catholic in capitalistic enterprises. That was exactly what large numbers of the old commercial aristocracy of those times, in Geneva as well as in Holland and England, felt about it. The reformers complained in those areas of high economic development were not too much supervision of life on the part of the Church, but too little (Religious affiliation and social stratification).

Marx Weber’s symbolic interaction emphasizes on human behavior and its social processes. He opposes Marx’s approach of industrial revolution. This was from the Protestants teaching of self sufficiency and independent relations with God during the protestant reformation rather than through a priest.

All the above sociological theories discusses briefly about the social nature of people living together and how they relate to each other. If oppressed, they will look for means to relieve that oppression and outdo the oppressor. But again, from the suicide theory we see that individuality is overshadowed when ties to one’s community are too strong. Hence showing that ‘we’ need each other but when oppressed, we look a means out of it. It has also been shown that capitalists unlike communists exploit those who are deemed the poor, the same case with the catholic and protestant churches who will always look away out of it.

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