1. Boundaries are a systems perspective because they define an aspect of the environment that clearly outlines the beginning and the end of a particular aspect especially geographical.
2. Homeostasis is an ecological perspective because it biological term that can be used to describe the state of affairs that promotes maximal social functioning.
3. Role is both a systems and ecological perspective because it can describe the role of a particular system or role of a particular organ.
4. Relationship could be both a biological term and a term used to describe a system because it outlines the interaction between aspects. Therefore, it is both a systems and ecological perspective.
5. Input is a systems perspective because it describes an investment within a particular system.
6. Throughput is a systems perspective because it describes the efficiency in the performance of a system.
7. Output is a systems perspective because it describes the level of success of a system with regard to the investment made.
8. Feedback is both is both a systems and ecological perspective because it is used in biology and it also describes the response from a system.
9. Synergy is a systems perspective because it describes the level of integration of the components of a system.
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10. Equifinality is a system because it describes the ability of various efforts to arrive at the same results.
11. Energy can be used as a metaphor borrowed from biology and to describe a system. Therefore, it is both a systems and ecological perspective.
12. Coping is an ecological perspective because it can be used as a metaphor in social work and is borrowed from biology.
13. Reatedness is a systems perspective that can be used to describe the effectiveness of a system to address a particular challenge in the society.
14. Self-concept is a systems perspective because it describes the perception of an individual towards a particular system.
15. Niche is an ecological perspective drawn from biology that can be used to describe the social space of an individual.
16. Exploitative power is a systems perspective that describes the ability of a system to take advantage of opportunities.
17. Adaptation is an ecological perspective borrowed from biology that can be used to describe the ability of an individual to respond to societal changes.
18. Efficacy is a systems perspective that describes the efficiency of a particular system.
19. Competence is a systems perspective that describes the ability of a system to be effective relative to other similar systems.
20. Habitat is a biological term that can be used to describe the social environment occupied by a particular group of people. Therefore it is an ecological perspective.
The first disadvantage of the systems theory is that it is a theory that only represents actual occurrences but cannot truly reflect the occurrences. The second disadvantage of the systems theory is that it encourages too much generalization and conceptualization of aspects implying a divergent from the reality of occurrences. The third disadvantage of systems theory is that it encourages the drawing of the relationship between aspects without the proper emphasis on the detailed description of the nature of the relationships. The systems theory is limited with regard to responding to variations in the environment. The over emphasis of the systems theory tends to neglect the individuals contribution of the components within a system (Greene, 2008).
The systems theory enables social workers to understand how individuals, families and communities respond to changes within social systems in a particular society. Systems theory will also enable a social worker to understand how the actions by individuals, families and societies affect the operations within a social system. Systems theory is also important in evaluating the level of integration of individuals, families and societies within systems structured to improve the quality of life (Pease, 2003). Systems theory will also assist social workers to understand a system which includes the micro, mezzo and macro as one unit instead of separate units and thereby bring out important aspects with relation to interaction.
The ecological theory deals with the integration of biological terms and the interaction of cells within an organism can help in understanding the important role played by each cell. Ecological systems also explain the importance of the nature of interaction between parties within a society beginning from the individual to the society in general. Ecological systems bring out such aspects as competition for limited resources and assist in bringing out the effects of the competition (Nash, 2005). Ecological systems also show that individuals, families and societies construct particular social spaces where they can perform various activities. Ecological perspectives are also important in understanding aspect such as the inheritance of traits by offspring with regard to social problems.
The primary question about social theories is the effect of the limitations of the theories with regard to their diversion from reality and how such limitations can be mitigated.
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