This theory is based on the idea that a person’s decision whether to abide by societal general procedures (values and rules) or not depends on the bond between individuals and the society (Lemert, 1945). Furthermore, it has theorized that the individual-society bond is made up of four elements that is :(a) attachment: having a general sense of touch and feeling to others’ opinions and being able to have respect towards others and feel affection towards one’s life; (b) commitment: time and energy investment on activities (both conventional and unconventional) using different means and goals to achieve that; (c) involvement: how long term and short term opportunities are shaped up by the living patterns; and (d): the level at which the rightness of legal rules are taken by young people and how the societal consensus are generally reflected. The life of a young person is therefore defined by the four elements and whether they’ll use the conventional means to advance socially or use ways that are illegal to gratify themselves is solely dependent on the four above (Miller and Dollard, 1941).
This theory is premised on the subculture of the youth and has some close links to the social control approaches, that is, a group setting has to be present for learning of an act perceived by the society as a criminal act. Operation on different systems of value, adhering to sub-cultural norms in individual’s act and different forms of right and wrong are the ways in which subculture use to see itself. The subcultures also represent and are viewed as a response to socio-economic shortfalls and means of resisting the deprivation (Debbie et al. 2004).