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The term indigenismo can be defined to be the representation of the indigenous people in the Latin America by the people who came from the outside of the country of Spain. It is specifically a phenomenon from the American people and it concerns with how colonized and indigenous people should be treated by the colonizers. It comprises of a diverse array of intellectual production that concerned the indigenous people of the Latin America. It was actually the Brazilian artistic and literary movement that reached its peak during the first circle of the Brazilian romanticism. We can also define the term as a cultural movement that came up after the revolution in Mexico. It was spawned by artists and writers who explored their national heritage and proudly included their old age Mesoamerican past. The artists who were involved studied and used the indigenous imagery and concepts in order to express their social and political messages to the people (Griswold, McKenna and Yarbro-Bejarano 26-29)
It was a strong political force in Mexico and Peru with its deep roots in Latin America history and culture. The importance of the movement was felt by many people and it soon spread beyond the borders of these countries and became an important part of the revolutionary movement that in other countries as Bolivia and Guatemala. What actually caused and influenced the movement were the paternalistic impulses that perceived the indigenous people as passive receivers of outsiders’ actions and it aimed at making them active. It involved people like the archaeologists, theologians, novelists, politicians, philosophers and also the political activists. It fought for the liberation of the indigenous people in the country (Gasper 26-31).
In the late 1960s, there was a widespread movement by the Mexican Americans across the aztlan that engaged in activities that were to bring social justice in the American people. It called for the mass mobilization of the gente to bring attention to the public on their demands for power and authority, equality in the races and also the education reform. There was then a powerful use of posters and mural paintings to disseminate important information about political activities to the people. There was also the integration of the politics and the art which helped to foster the development of the Chicano art movement. It was thus a vita tool in the development of the Chicano art.
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The gifted group of individuals decided to demonstrate their power, cultural identity and their aesthetic beauty through their art. Through it, they were able to express their needs and also the needs of the Chicano community as a whole. Chicano were therefore successful in the development of a wealth of the cultural expression through painting, drawings, sculpture among others as lithography, hence the work of art was of vital use during the Chicano movement and also continues to be in the hearts of struggle for many people (Lafayette 145-146).
Through the work of Indian’s, the Latinos have been able to create their own institutions of art and have also forged their own artistic exhibitions. This is mainly due to the fact that much of the Chicano art has not been included in the mainstream museums. It had been working for the most parts but its validization had not come from the mainstream institutions. Due to this, the Latinos saw the need to offset this lack of recognition and they did so by establishing their own institutions.
Moreover, Chicanos shone a spotlight on a culture rich in values and traditions. The Chicano movement was thus there in order to provide an opportunity for people to celebrate the traditions and culture tat make America great. The painters, who focused on the art, were thus the main players of the movement besides the indigenous comedians, writers, film makers, and journalists among others (Hugo and Barry 78-82).
There were various forms of indianism that had taken place within the Latin Americans. One of them was the work of literature. There was one of the well known novels as Jorge Icazas` huasipungo. This happened in 1934 in Ecuador. Such a novel focused on the oppression of the poor, indigenous and agricultural workers who were mistreated by the large land holders. They depicted the indigenous people as primitive and ignorant who could not improve their lives without external assistance. They also focused of the protection of their own cultures. They feared educating the indigenous people with a reason that they might be elevated and assimilated into one of the dominant cultures, a thing they never wanted to take place. Through such a novel, the people were able to know how they were being oppressed and mistreated by the people who did not belong to their land. They therefore rose to the occasion and fought for their right of expression and education equality among all the people of their country (Hugo and Barry 78-82).
In conclusion, through the works of indianism, the indigenous people were able to build their own organizations. They also presented a sustained critique of indianism as a form of the long built culture that had been designed to stop liberal movements. The indigenous people were able to resist academics that studied their cultures but failed to deliver to the people of the land. There was thus the emergence of strong political movements that advanced the political agenda of the indigenous people.
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