Social Disorganization Theory
Social disorganization theory is one of the sociological theories that best supports the social problems approach to crime causation in the modern day American society. This is a type of criminological theory that attribute occurrence of crimes to various time spans, territories as well as the breakdown in a social or communal institution like churches, family, local governments or even learning institutions like schools (Schmalleger,2001).
The theory argues breakdown of such social institutions that initially encouraged cooperation type of relationships amongst group of people especially those that were presumed organized and territorialized and involved high levels of involvement across diverse age groups and often coordinated by the communal representatives like the family heads, pastors and local officials (Guerra & Williams 1996). The theory is tied to the breakdown of relationships that are intimately tied to and indicate social or communal conceptions of the people. Such presumed organizations closely are closely associated with the community development in terms of bonding between people who live geographically close together.
Therefore societies plagued with poverty and economically deprived experiences higher rates of population turnovers as well as population heterogenity hence preventing development of social structure which makes an existence of social order hard to maintained leading to a disorganized society with limited or no binding structure.
Psychological theories are not distinct but offer a guiding principle that focuses on the roles played by the family and individual influences in causing an individual to carry out a crime. It involves longitudinal studies that attempt to explain ones tendencies to crime fro childhood to adult hood hence they are often continuous. Such theories link an individual behaviour to antisocial behaviour that involve behaviour like heavy drinking, doing of drugs, educational problems, relationship difficulties, employment problems and even reckless driving and such behavior tend to persists from childhood to adult hood tough with different behavioral manifestations. Such theories are the motivational, inhibiting, a learning process and decisions making with an effort to maintain an optimum balance. Is a crime is punished then chance of recurring are less and the opposite is true if it goes unpunished (Jensen, 2003).
Crime Reduction Policies
The outline given below will help reduce crime rates caused by sociological malfunctions of the society. First, is the development of a pollicy that supports common ground policies on reducing abortion through prevention of unwanted pregnancies thus providing meaningful alternatives that support women and children hence the policies reducing crime as such policies reflects a consistent ethic of life in the society.
Secondly is the formulation of policies that strengthen marriage and families through promotion of education, responsible parenthood, prevention of child abuse and neglect, reduce domestic violence and strengthening marriage And family formation which promotes a culture of raining children with strong values (Barak,1998).
Policies that promote recreational activities, programs that enhance community services, cooperative learning, public information campaigns, community development, neighborhood mobilization, behavioral parent training programs; family problem solving programs, gang prevention programs and generally programs that help improve social organization should be formulated and implemented in the community level (Kren & Drowns, 2009). Finally policies that considers favorable security benefits for the less fortunate in the society as well as protecting the retired members of the society retirement risks and prevention of private accounts that reduce social benefits hence reducing conflict of resources through the creation of a covenant of common good in the society.