In the Bible, a covenant is an agreement between God and his people where God agrees to honor certain demands and promises for his people. The mosaic covenant has the foundations of Torah (the five books of Moses). It was agreed upon between God and his people through Moses. In this covenant God agrees to
Make the children of Israel (his children), a holy nation, as well as a kingdom of priests.
To make these children of Israel his special possession among all the people as long as they keep his covenant and obey him
To give them a Sabbath as a permanent sign of the agreement. In so doing, God also gave Moses the Ten Commandments (Decalogue) as part of the conditions for this covenant.
Jeremiah is one of the Major Prophets in the Bible. Jeremiah was called by God in to his ministry so that he would prophesy the destruction of Israel because of the nation failing to honor the mosaic covenant and the Ten Commandments. As a result Jeremiah was told to prophesy against the cities of Jerusalem and Judah that God would destroy them since they had decided to worship oher gods and worship the work of their hands (Jer 1:15-16). In criticizing Israel Jeremiah said that the people of Israel had in the first place dishonored the second and third commandments that were given to Moses as part of God’s commitment to the mosaic covenant.
The second commandment required that the people of Israel will have no other gods apart from God, while the third commandment required them not create idols and they should not worship them. According to Jeremiah, the people of Israel had dishonored this agreement since they were worshipping Baal as well as offering sacrifices to Baal. This act had angered God and that is why he was sending Jeremiah to prophesy to Israelites that God would destroy them and make them slaves of other nations.
In the Ten Commandments God had said that he was a jealous God and that he would punish children for the iniquity of their parents up to the third and fourth generations. Although Jeremiah was called in to the ministry of God during the rein of King Josiah, the sins of Josiah’s father and grandfather king Manasseh weree too huge that God intended to punish Israel if they did not change their ways. God also told Jeremiah that if the people of Israel and Judah would not repent then he would make sure that they would be at war with each other and that God would bring peace later on between them.
In this book of Jeremiah, it is also made clear that the nation of Israel refers to the descendants of Ephraim. Jeremiah is given the task of going through all the towns and cities of Israel in order to deliver Gods prophesy. In the course of his calling Jeremiah faces many challenges including persecution and imprisonment. However, God does not let him down and he gets him through all of his troubles. In the book, God is quoted as telling Jeremiah that he knew him even before he was born and thus he had a plan for him.
As a result Jeremiah prophesies Gods words to all descendants of Israel and asks them to honor the mosaic covenant and the ten commandments so that God will be merciful un to them and shower them with blessings once again.