Muhammad, the father of Islam originated from Mecca. During this period, inhabitants of Arabian Peninsula had a rather primitive religious setting, which comprised of worship of stones, stars, caves and trees. Muhammad began receiving visions. His visions are in the Koran, the Islamic scripture. His preaching of the visions received great resistance at Mecca; this resulted since his teachings threatened economic and political powers of that time. His supporters were the poor people who were concerned about a new social order. In 622, he traveled to medina. This becomes a turning point of Islam. Islam became a movement with Muhammad as its head. In 630, they took over Mecca. After the death of founder of Islam, Mohammed, the Islamic empire began to get bigger. It began to expand in the Arab peninsula. It reached Asia, Africa and parts of Europe.
Islamic leaders occupied Iran in 641 and Egypt in 642. In 8th century, northern Africa, Spain, Portugal and India were under Islamic control. The Islamic conquest stopped at the battle of tours in 732 at France. Nevertheless, they continued to rule the other regions for almost nine centuries. In 762, Baghdad was the intellectual capital requested for books from around the world. Traders received a book for its weight in gold. Thus, Baghdad obtained great wealth of knowledge.
Following the requirement of Koran that all able bodied male to visit Mecca at least once in their life, Muslims became. They would cover great distance as they moved from their localities to Mecca and back. They traveled from the boundaries' of Islamic empire, each annually leading to further exploration beyond Arabian Peninsula. By 11th century, they were exploring the eastern coast of Africa.
The duration between 800-and200 BCE was important because it created the world through which Islam emerged. Religious leaders emerged resulting in production of religious text. Trends among religions of the end of classical worlds close link with empires and states. Islam is an integration of political and religious authority. It is not a creation of Muhammad. No religion is a conception of one man. Islam itself is a creation of a number of issues .one of them being the prevailing conditions of that time.
The other is the surroundings, which made it flourish. The inhabitants of the Arabian Desert were a number of tribes engaged in warfare. They remained undisturbed by other armies like Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians and Romans by virtue of natural aspects. Since Arabs remained largely separated from the rest of humankind, they came to believe that strangers were enemies. Poverty also amplified this belief since there was nothing to share anyway. These became law. Their belief is that as descendants of Ismael, the cursed tribe to live on the dry parts of the earth while the rest of humanity lived on rich and fertile portion. They intended to recover a portion of the heritage, which they were denied.
Before the birth of Muhammad, most Arabs were traders and robbers. Robbery was a tool they used to establish monopoly on trade routes. It made them brave such that they developed characteristics of war likeness. They became warriors since one needs physical strength to rob. Reliable records show that Arabs fought approximately seven hundred battles before the birth of the prophet. Most of the battles that they fought are internecine feuds, which enabled them to grow economically.
The Arabian Peninsula is a vast stretch of sandy wasteland. Nevertheless, it`s surrounded on the three sides by fertile countries. Agriculture and industry during the period was doing well in these countries. Southwards there was an ocean with cargo from India. Traders from Persia, Assyria, Syria, Palestine and other regions began to pass through the Arabian wilderness. With time the Arabs realized that trade is more profitable than robbery. They commanded the trade route along the red sea. All trade routes intersected at Mecca. They traded in corn, precious stones, tusks, pearls, aromatics and manufactured articles.
Trade led to prosperity to some tribes like the Koreish, but other Arabian tribes became jealous. Tribal war broke out. Each tribe had its own tribal god. Hashemite family later called for peace, proclaiming unity under one religion, Islam. Today if Muslims are warriors, they did not obtain that virtue from religious teachings, they were warriors before Muhammad was born. They did not receive the ability to wield sword through Islamic faith. Therefore, their military achievements are more of a result of social condition of the country in which Islam was born than service to God. Robbery was an idea, which developed because of necessity but later crystallized into the religion Islam.