The issue of existence of God has remained to me one of the most debated in Philosophy. Many philosophers have come up with different theories, which support the existence of God and other that refute the existence of God. This issue remains to be controversial, as it cannot be proved using scientific means. Philosophers have tried to demonstrate the argument on the existence of God by the use of reason. All the theories are based on the thinking of the human mind, which has its shortcoming. Many questions arise for instance did God create Man or man created God. This paper analyses the argument and then looks the views William Paley presents on the issue of existence of God. The paper will also look at the reasons as to why God is created by man.
One of the scholars who have contributed to this issue of existence of God is William Paley. He is famous because of his analogical design argument, which he presented in his natural theology. In his theory, he compared the universe to a watch. Looking at how the watch worked, its order and purpose infers that there is an intelligent designer who has designed it. This acted as his basis of the argument of existence of God who is responsible for creating man. He compared the watch to the universe because he argued that the world exhibited the same order, complexity, therefore, showing that a creator created it. He agued that human beings have no prior knowledge on how the universe is made but since we have prior knowledge of how watches are made then its possible to infer the same to the creation of the universe. On the problem of evil, he argues that sometimes even clocks breaks occasionally or runs slow. This same thing happens to the universe. The breakdown of the watch is equated to the evils in the universe (Schmidt 193-195).
The basis of his argument about the existence of God is on the evidence on the existence and how nature appears. He argues that the universe cannot come into existence by accident. Its existence is a proof of its maker who is an intelligent designer. Everything according to Paley is designed in a way that it supposed to fulfill some purpose. (Schmidt 193-195). The universe is designed to fulfill some purposes, for example, pollination of the flower by bees. He continue to argue the regularity of the universe is a further prove that God exist as the creator of the universe. God regulates that way the universe functions. The universe is designed to have in accordance to some rules, for example, the order for instance laws of motion by Isaac Newton. This argument is known as teleological argument, which looks to the purpose which things are designed to fulfill. Paley made arguments that it is possible to make same conclusions about various natural objects that exist. In concluding his argument, he believes that the universe was designed by God. Therefore, man being part of the universe is also created by God (Farrel 895-896).
Despite the fact, that his argument about the existence of an intelligent designer is valid he never did not a standard that can be used for detection of design in nature. His method of argument depended on vague standards such as looking at the purpose of an object. Another limitation of his design argument is that he reasoned from the facts if nature to come up with a conclusion that a benevolent God exists. Scientists have realized that design can be formulated. This has been realized as the scientists have discovered methods that differentiate objects, which are caused intelligently, and those that are caused unintelligently.
On the other side of the argument existence of God may be an invention of man. Man created God to satisfy personal needs. This also helps man to explain the unexplained (Evans 6-12). When one looks at the issue of design the reason as to why the design theory hold that there is a designer. There is no enough prove why this intelligent designer should be automatically be God. One cannot refute the argument that the universe was designed and that it has a beginning, but one cannot tell clearly, where the issue of God as the creator comes. The only reason why the issue of God comes is the problem of Infinity. This is a metaphysical issue it is out of human knowledge as no one has ever given the real start of the universe. Therefore, whether the universe was caused or not caused by anything is an issue man has not yet known. Because of lack of any explanations of how the universe became into being man created God. Man created God so that he can explain the mystery of the universe. Man holds God as a powerful immortal being.
In order for human beings to govern themselves and be able, to solve some problems they created a being that they can refer to in those situations. Human beings have a tendency of inventing and innovating things in order to solve their problems. For example, medicines are invented to cure diseases that affect people. The invention acts as a way of solving human problems (Evans 6-12). This is the same way that man created God in order to solve some of the problems that human being cannot solve. For example, in order to explain life after death or to solve problems which arise out of faith? In those circumstances, God acts as the reference. Man also created God so that he can be the reference on issues that are beyond human rationality. Human beings critical thinking towards beliefs is impaired, so God acts as the solution.
In the human mind there is flickering of possibility and hope. People always crave for the nutrients of life in order to grow. People have the tendency of looking for something better and rewarding. This brings the urge to have someone who can make life better and rewarding. This makes people to build their hope to a supreme being whom they believe can offer the kind of life that they desire (Torrel 328-329). This makes them belief in God who they have faith in that he is able to provide a better and rewarding life. God represents all the things that have been there, the things, which are present at now, and those that will come in the future. This makes human beings have faith and hope that God is all knowing and powerful to provide whatever man requests from him. This represents another mental construct of God by man.
As can be seen from the paper both sides of the arguments on the existence of God have their strong points and limitation. A I had mentioned the challenge with this subject is that there has been no scientific method that has been applied in development of the theories. The theories depend on human reasons, which have limitations. For instance, Paley develops his argument by observing nature and then without experimentation he concludes that there must be someone who designed the universe. This is why the issue of existence of God is more of a metaphysical problem.