The Quran is the central text of Islamic faith since the inception of the religion. The Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century and has experienced several translations since then. In 1930 Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall published another translation titled The Meanings of the Glorious Quran. He was a Christian man form England who converted to Islam. He asserted that his work was merely presenting the Quran in English. Presently, the translation done in 1934CE by Abdullah Yusuf Ail entitled The Holy Quran is widely used (Rakhway 7).
The contribution towards the translation of the Quran is not only made by Muslims but also by Christians. In 1955 a Christian professor Arthur Arberry published a translation titled The Koran Interpreted. He claimed that the Quran should not be translated because it is a great piece of work. He, therefore, chose to name his translation as an interpretation.
The Islamic religion has been experiencing internal conflict since the year 1930 to the present day. This is because some Muslims formed a sect named Qaadiyaani who published views varying from the original Quran in 1969 and 1971 (Rakhway 9). Islamic religion has experienced conflict between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims. This is because the Sunni reject the theocracy about an absolute religious state where the president and prime minister are subordinate to religious judges (Fleming 154).
The Islamic religion continued to expand to other nations since 1930 to the present age. It was during this era that some Islamic states were formed e.g. Pakistan. In other states though the Islamic law was abolished and replaced with civil law like in the case of Turkey. In an attempt to reinforce Islamic law in Persia and Iran the Muslims revolted against the Shah regime that encouraged modernization and westernization (Fleming 153). The Iranian revolution was a source of strength for Muslims but its injustices have turned most Muslims against it. To this day, Muslims in Iran fight to extend their rule to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Emirates, and Lebanon (Fleming 153).
To this day, there is a conflict between Christianity and Islam because Muslims condemn Christian belief in holy trinity as denial of monotheism. The spread of Christianity to Australia in 1930 fueled the need for Muslims to spread their religion to Australia and Britain. Christianity has declared unity among the different denominations by forming commissions on unions of churches known by different names in different countries. Like Islam, Christianity has experienced internal conflict of denominational beliefs such as the issue of strictly keeping the Sabbath (Fleming 47).
Summary of Evolution and Driving Forces in Religious Evolution
The evolution of Christian religion is hinged on factors that portray Jesus Christ as the source of salvation. Christianity has evolved from Judaism since the first century with the writing of the Old Testament. In early years before Christ Christianity was based on hope given by prophets in the Old Testament. That belief changed to reality with the transcendence of Jesus Christ and his teachings.
The Christian religion evolution found its driving force in Christ, his resurrection, and recognition of lordship of god and divinity of Christ (Grillmeier and Bowden 33). Christian religion evolution was marked with persecution of adherents to the teachings of Jesus Christ. The evolution of the church and the spread of Christianity was mostly aided and favored by political environment. The Islamic religion also contributed to the spread and evolution of Christianity because it posed challenges to core beliefs of Christians.
The Islamic religion, on the other hand, is established on the revelations of the last prophet known as Muhammad. Islamic religious belief in prophets and the revelation of the Quran has formed the force behind its spread and evolution. The driving force in Islam is the belief in divine power and absolute political authority (Lewis 95). The Islamic religion has evolved through conversion of Christians to Muslims and through formation of Islamic law. The Islamic religion has spread from the Middle East to Western and African nations. Islamic religion has formed absolute Islamic nations while trying to extend the law to other nations and faiths. Both Christianity and Islam have evolved towards disintegration rather than unity in formation of sects and denominations with varying beliefs.