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Secularism is a belief that rejects religion. Confessionalism is based on the priests hearing confessions. Egypt used the secular approach in organizing its societies and government while Lebanon used Confessionalism in organizing its societies and politics.
Secularism in Egypt reflected the Islamic religion. It meant favoring the modern secular democracy. This involved separating the mosque and state. The Islamic religion is not a state religion. Secularism has also been applied to many other Muslim countries. Secularism is paying less attention to religion and supporting secular activities. The matters of the government are wholly separated from the matters of religion. The main problem lies in understanding that not all Muslims support this motion. There are those Muslims that believe that the Muslim religion should be incorporated in matters of the government (Gettleman & Schaar 289).
The matters of the rule are referred to as dawlah while the matters of the faith are referred to as din. There have been existing secular states in Egypt in the previous years. The secularism has driven a lot of attention especially in the academic world. Many scholars have spent years researching on the secularism. Some scholars have argued that secular government similar to that of Egypt is the best way to ensure that sharia law is maintained in the course.
The observation on the enforcement of the sharia came to light when it was observed that people diligently obeys the government laws more than the religious views. Incorporating the government and the region laws give excellent results in the implementation of the sharia law. Most of the Muslim nations have it in that most of the disputes are referred to the religion section where the sharia law applies. The sharia laws focus on marital conflicts, inheritance and guardian issues. Egypt remained a one state party and was fully against any organized political groupings. The Islamic radicals with this approach faced resistance and often found themselves harassed, imprisonment, tortures, exiled and death.
Lebanon applied Confessionalism in governance. This involved the use of parliament on the implementation and creation of the land laws. Lebanon used Confessionalism in which the highest offices are reserved for religious communities. People of Lebanon had the mandates to change the government as the constitution clearly stated. There was a political war in Lebanon in the period 1975 until 2005. The parliamentary has the duty of electing the president. The Doha agreement endorsed the religious Confessionalism in the distribution of the political power (Gettleman & Schaar 292).
Confessionalism in Lebanon was recognized by the Syria. Confessionalism was aimed at bringing peace and stability in the politics of Lebanon. Syria had the Arab backing which forced Lebanon to endorse a constitution that called for the abolition of the Confessionalism. The Lebanon’s battling religious sects were against the abolition of Confessionalism. Confessionalism abolition in the initial stages brought war in Lebanon.
Lebanon maintained the higher posts of the presidency and other notable seats of the religious groupings. Muslim had the majority of the followers. This made Muslim the majority shares in the parliamentary house.
Egypt was faced with land distribution problems leading to the land reforms. The only party that was allowed to exist in Egypt was the socialist union. This was a government dominated political party. The government of Egypt had the imperial domination. The exploitative capitalism was subject to rejection by many people of Egypt. It was termed to as an unholy alliance against people. Capitalist in Egypt involves the senior people fight in maintaining their wealth and the like at the expense of the local Egyptian populations. This is what happens in many other countries causing war when the local people resist the exploitation (Gettleman & Schaar 291). Change is evident, and justice is search by the people. Imperialism was subject to be challenged with time and established of social justice was the way of the future generations.
The land reforms were particularly vital. Most influential chucks of land were owned by the rich few. The stretches of land were along the Suez Canal; the land was mainly used for agriculture. Agricultural companies had tremendous chunks of land; the companies had foreign ownership. There were land reforms that followed in the agrarian revolution.
There were other relevant reforms. There was the abolition of monopoly and the domination of capital over the government. The companies providing: the banking services, insurances, foreign and international trade became the public property. The government ensured it owned the biggest percentage in the industries. This ensured control of the resources of the Egypt. The transport system, mining industry and all outstanding industries was also owned by the government (Gettleman & Schaar 294).
Egypt saw the need of eliminating the continuous governance by monarchies. The socialist union had the system of maintaining the political power resolves around certain powerful individuals. There was to ensure a fair political vetting. The need of doubling the national income was necessarily to maintain continuity. The final need was to ensure that there existed Arab unity.
Anwar Sadat opened the way to the west. This is well known as the neoliberalism. The main aim was to cut subsidies to the poor; and the aim was to attract the foreign investment by attracting the United States. This brought a lot of inequality which in turn was followed by regular riots. The Arab socialism was shallow and was less united. Egypt introduced the industries in the region.
Syria has a significant influence in the Lebanon governance. The idea of an Arab Lebanon was opposed by many. The Christians in Lebanon demanded a fair share. The Maronite represented the Christian leaders. Lebanon had the majority Muslims. Jordan had several attacks by Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The Jordan based Palestinian liberation organization (PLO) was a threat to the government of Lebanon. The struggle was among the Christians and Muslims. Confessionalism was a solution as it catered for both the religions in the governance of the country. Lebanon ended the war that had lasted many years under the influence of Syria. The constitution was drafted; and the country maintained Confessionalism as a way of governance (Gettleman & Schaar 296). There was a need to abolish the political Confessionalism gradually.
Lebanon came to an agreement that there shall be equal representation between Christians and Muslims. There was a need to Proportional representation in the confessional groups. Lebanon maintained equality between the Muslims and the Christians while Egypt maintained the secularism governance. Muslims were the majority in Egypt. Lebanon had an equal share of the Christians and Muslims.
Egypt had many political movements indicating transitions. The social trends were changing regularly; and many ideologies came into play. Egypt t attracted the west to invest in their country. Many industries were set up; and agriculture was considerably enhanced. The foreign community was offered any privileges and exemptions. Suez Canal was opened to encourage foreign investment. Lebanon maintained equality between the Christians and the Muslims maintaining equal share of the power. Islamic radicalism involved many years of changes.
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