1. Buddha nature is a very important principle taught in most of the schools of Mahayana Buddhism. It is basically taught to achieve a true, eternal awakening. Consequently, becoming an Enlightened one. Furthermore, it is considered to be indestructible, incorruptible and uncreated. It is not considered to be an isolated essence of a particular being but a single unified essence shared by all beings with Buddha-nature (Wayman, 1981).
2. The existence of ego is not denied by Buddhism. It is considered to be having no permanent state or solid core. It is a useful tool that is primarily used to relate to the world. Furthermore, ego formation and development supplies a vital role in building relationships and makes a variety of society (Breder, 2009).
3. Nirvana is the state wherein a soul is free from all sufferings, hatred, delusions and greed. It is the perfect peace of the state of the mind. It is the “end of the world” where there are no boundaries for the mind. It is the state of mind that is logically in heaven. Furthermore, in nirvana, the root causes of all evil are eradicated (Harvey, 1995).
4. The four noble truths are: (1) Dukkha, which means that suffering do exist. It reminds people that suffering is real and normal. (2) Samudaya, which means there is a cause to every suffering. The main cause is the desire to have and control things. Furthermore, it can take on many forms such as the desire to attain sexual pleasure. (3) Nirodha, which means that there is an end to all sufferings. It releases the mind from any form of desire and craving. Sufferings end with the liberation of the mind. The mind experiences complete freedom and liberation. (4) Magga, which explains that in order to end all sufferings, one must follow the eight-fold path (Robinson, 2009).
5. Dependent Origination is the principle of conditionality. It is basically the concept of the interdependent nature of things. There are two existing interpretations of the Dependent Origination. One interpretation of the Dependent Origination is that it is a cycle that starts from ignorance to aging and death. It is a “demonstration of life- or world-evolution,” (Interpreting Dependent Origination, n.d.). Second interpretation would be “As a demonstration of the arising and cessation of individual life, or individual suffering.” (Interpreting Dependent Origination, n.d.).
6. Vipassana Meditation is done by transformation of the self through self-observation. It aims to fully eradicate mental impurities and achieve the highest happiness of full liberation. It is basically a mental training that follows a code of discipline and “observing sensations throughout the body, understanding their nature, and developing equanimity by learning not to react to them.” (Vipassana Meditation, n.d )
7. Metta Meditation basically involves the recitation of specific words and phrases that invoke “boundless warm-hearted feeling”. This starts from the self, extending towards the world (Metta Meditation, 2010).
8. Tonglen Meditation is done by breathing in relation to one's parents, friends and enemies, to all beings gathered around oneself. It is basically a sending and taking meditation that involves giving away happiness and taking on suffering (Rinpoche, 1993).
9. Koan is basically a technique for awakening that uses the silencing of the conceptual mind. It is anything that cannot be understood by the logical mind. With constant practice of the mind with the koan, the mind gets accustomed to its own accord that is not based on rational thought. It is the first step to enlightenment (Lokhande, 2010).
10. "Thank you for slapping me in the face." In a Buddhist point of view means that one must be thankful for the sufferings that one experiences. There is an end to every suffering. That suffering is normal and inevitable. Also, one must not speak ill of his neighbour. One must accept even suffering for his neighbour. Moreover, it can also mean acceptance of a correction.
11. The heart sutra means that understanding “perfection of wisdom”, one may clearly see that the existence of human is empty. Furthermore, nothing is permanent and nothing is totally independent of everything else. That everything in this world in interconnected. The deep appreciations of this idea will “save us from the suffering caused by our egos, our attachments, and our resistance to change and loss.” (The Heart Sutra, n.d.)
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