Behaviorism is a study theory where objectively observable behaviors are focused on and any independent activities of the mind are discounted. Behavior theorists have often defined learning as simply the personal acquisition of new behavior normally based on environmental conditions. Behaviorism is thought to have been a movement in philosophy and psychology where the outward behavioral aspects of thought were emphasized and inward experimental or what is sometimes referred to inner procedural aspects is dismissed. The continuing philosophical interests related to behaviorism is associated with several methodological challenges posed to the scientific world largely related to consciousness representing empiricism and the subjectivity of thought representing materialism (Hauser). Several trends in philosophy and psychology still advocate for behaviorism and its principles. Behaviorism methodological marks are normally regarded to remain despite the fact that experimental inflexibility in psychology is required to have several operational variables. Behaviorism is a philosophical position that psychology should focus its attention to what is observable, behavior and the environment rather than what is only accessible to the individual feelings, perceptions or thoughts (Boree).
Conditioning is a universal learning process that several experiments by behaviorist made it identified. There are different types of conditioning that are thought to yield different behavioral pattern. There is classic conditioning that occurs a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. It is thought that everyone is biologically wired hence a specific response is produced as a result of a specific stimulus. An educational environment is a perfect example of classic conditioning a good example in situations where students normally exhibit irrational anxieties and fears like fear of public speaking or failure. Behavior conditioning on the other hand is another type of conditioning that occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Behaviorism has had its fair share of criticism. It is said that behaviorism does not actually account for all kinds of learning mainly because it does not take into account the activities of the mind. Research has also proved that some animals usually adapt their reinforced patterns to new information. Behaviorism also does not account for some learning for instance young children having the ability to recognize new language patterns where there is no possible reinforcement mechanism. Behaviorism has a grreat chance having an impact to education. It is thought to have both positive and negative techniques which are normally effective. They are normally used in conditions such as treatment of human disorders such as autism, antisocial behavior, anxiety disorders and many others. Behaviorism is usually used by teachers where they punish or reward student’s behaviors (Watson, 4).
Psychoanalysis is a specific mind investigation technique and therapy that comes after the investigation. Therapy is usually regarded as emphasis that psychoanalysis is not just a mere speculation, and is closer to psychotherapy rather than philosophy, culture or art in general (Strean, 1). Psychoanalysis therefore is thought to be a method of investigation of a human mind and how the mind thinks. It can also be said to be a systematized set of theories regarding human behavior. Psychoanalysis can also be regarded as a method of treatment of emotional or psychological illnesses. There are very many psychoanalysis theories and can be grouped into several theoretical groups. These theoretical groups may have several differences but they normally assert the strong influence of unconscious elements that affect lives of many people around the world.
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