Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which interferes with the normal functioning on the brain. The disease makes a person to go awry in that he/she lives in a world that he/she only exists and it is marked by hallucinations, delusions and in most cases disordered thinking (Hales & Yudofsky, 2004). Psychosis on the other hand is a state where an individual finds himself to be out of touch with reality. Just like schizophrenia, Psychotic patients may experience delusions or hallucinations or both (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2009). Psychosis is in most times linked to schizophrenia but it can also occur along with many mental disorders.
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Major DSM-IV-ITR Categories in Schizophrenia and psychosis
In actual fact schizophrenia is a class or group of disorders. There are many subtypes of schizophrenia that are defined by the different criterion of DSM-IV. Each case of the subtypes is identified by a certain kind of basic disturbance in behavior, emotion and thought processes. In addition to this the subtypes are paranoid, in differentiated, disorganized and catatonic. In psychosis, it is divided into two extensive classes namely the dementia praecox and the bipolar disorder (previously known as manic-depressive psychosis)
The development of many mental disorders is very specific on how and when they start to develop in terms of age and time (Jackson & McGorry, 1999). According to the DSM-IV-TR, it categorizes those disorders usually diagnosed first during infancy, childhood, and adolescence and those that are first diagnosed during adulthood under Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders. Though these disorders have a tendency of being first diagnosed during a specified developmental periods there are possibility that they can occur during any age(Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2009).
From the four developmental stages of infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, each category has disorders such as rumination disorder, Asperger’s disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, correspondingly, which will be divide into its supplementary biological, emotions, cognitive, and behavioral components.
Rumination disorder also known as merycism is possibly diagnosed when an individual intentionally brings back food to the mouth and either re-swallows it, re-chews or removes it out. Mostly common in infants, this disorder is associated with mental retardation (Jackson & McGorry, 1999).
In infants, rumination can be explained through cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic concepts. In addition to this biological influences are also being discovered as likely causes of this disorder.
Asperger's disorder, also known as autistic psychopathy or Asperger's syndrome belongs to pervasive developmental disorder which is a group of childhood disorders. The disorder is similar to autism, but in Asperger's children suffering from this disorder does not experience the difficulties in acquiring language and cognitive skills unlike children with autism (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2009).
In all, Asperger’s disorder has clear biological causes—both genetic and neurological—just like autism, but does not share the same cognitive and language deficiencies that are characteristic of autism.
The disorder is characterized with lack of social or emotional response noticeable by the impairment use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as body language, facial expresssions, and eye-to-eye gaze to control social interaction.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Opposition defiant disorder is a repeated pattern of defiant, negativistic, and hostile behavior toward persons in authority that have persisted for at more than 6 months. Such behaviors includes loose of temper, disobeying requests, arguing with adults, or breaking of rules.
This condition is mostly found in boys but it is not clear whether it is due to biological, genetic, or social conformity. Also it is not proven whether the criteria can be applicable to girls. In addition to this, there are cognitive, emotional and biological causes of Opposition defiant disorder. They include the difference in gender and the struggle for sovereignty.
Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type
This is a cognitive deficiency which affects the memory, thinking, and behavior of an individual. It is characterized by memory impairment in addition to problems in decision making, language, and personality (Hales & Yudofsky, 2004).From a biological perspective, the disorder increases with feminine gender, age, and history of stroke. Also, dementia of the Alzheimer’s type has a number of cognitive deficiencies that increases with increase in the same.
Mental disorders have a tendency of being first diagnosed during a particular age and time. Though research has shown that it can develop at any stage in life but chances of an adult ruminating or a child suffering from dementia of Alzheimer is very slim. To be able understand these disorders one has to take a position of several causality which has to include the biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components playing a role in the commencement and persistence of the mental disorders