Psychology is the scientific study of animal and human actions with the purpose of understanding why human beings behave the way they do. The discoveries of psychology have handy applications as nearly any science. Frequently, people confuse psychology with psychiatry, which is a division of medicine devoted to the treatment of mental illnesses. Psychologists might study various aspects. For instance, inherent or learned behavior, how behavior transforms with growth, how individuals get into trouble and how individuals differ. Consequently, several branches exist in psychology: animal psychology, social psychology, educational psychology, industrial psychology, developmental psychology, psychotherapy and psychology of individuality (The Science of mind, 2006).
Physiological psychology investigates the link between behavior and body systems for instance the endocrine system and the nervous system. It also investigates the multifaceted relations between hormones that gives rise to sentiments and brain. In animal psychology, psychologists mostly study animal behavior in laboratory. Moreover, the science of ethology studies animal behavior in their natural environments. Educational psychology focuses on those features of the intuitive activity that have to do with knowledge. It attempts to understand how animals and people gain knowledge, and to invent better ways of teaching while experimenting with them. The section of cognitive psychology concentrates with the ways we make out and convey how we store our insights and later remember them, and the way we think. Speech, sensitivity, thinking and memory are the key areas of this branch (The Science of mind, 2006). Definitions of psychology have transformed during its life span, mostly reflecting the impacts and involvements of its main hypothetical means or orientations. The diverse methodologies within the area of psychology are independent disciplines, and different facets of the same discipline. A field of study can only be justifiably regarded a science if most of its workers subscribe to a general, worldwide standpoint or prototype (Simond, 2008).
Ackerman (2011) asserts that psychology is a science since it seeks to investigate the reflections and actions of man in a scientific manner. Science holds a significant development in the history of human thinking, has trended astounding benefits, and wonders for the contemporary world. Man has been able to unchain immeasurable mysteries with science as a tool. Consecutively, these discoveries together with reflected technical proceeds have permitted an incredible extent of authority over the physical world. The drawbacks, reservations, restraints, inherent in man as man are still irreversibly and unavoidably present in all his inquiries including those, which we call scientific. Wise human conclusions will certainly consider all relevant facts provided by science, but the focus for the decision maker will be man's normal vision. However, Simond (2008) presents non-scientific approaches, which include case studies and unstructured interviews. If an approach in not scientific, it intends for in detail material concerning someone or a small group, qualitative data, good soundness, and a richness of data not found by isolating variables.
The subject of psychology as a science is overcast. On one hand, psychology is a science in which the theme is actions, comprising mental features of behavior for instance memory, and the theme is divided up for study. Researchers’ frequently use laboratories in an attempt to enhance controls, which are as detailed as possible, so that they can build universal laws concerning behavior. Conversely, psychology can be non-scientific. This is because its main aim is not scientific standards to gauge the whole world. In various sections of psychology, there is no effort to generalize from a number of human behaviors to entire human behavior. The humanistic theory centers on self-actualization and the person's experiences while the social representation theory centers on relations. Scientific approaches are not functional where there is focus on relations between people, and on the personal's experiences (Simond, 2008).