To begin with, psychology is taken as a science of consciousness. In connection to this point, consciousness entails issues of sensations, pleasures, memories, ideas and imaginations among others as such. So to speak, it is arguable that psychology deals with the issues of love, memory, stress, persuasion, perception, creativity, learning, personality, intelligence, sexuality and emotion among others. From a general point of view, psychology is basically directed towards understanding the nature, functions and in the larger perspective the mental experience and the phenomena of behavior. Besides this point, psychology deals with the science of mind together with behavior. It is actually meant to bring out an inner understanding of the humanity by means of examining the concepts of perception, attention, emotion, personality, behavior and interpersonal relationships from the larger point of view.
Following this point, there is also the issues of biological psychology. In connection to this point, Kalat (2008) asserts that biological psychology is the study of the evolutionary, physiological and the developmental mechanisms of experience and behavior of the humans. From a more practical point of view, biological psychology deals with the biology issues and the relationship with behavior. It also covers the effect of brain functioning and the way other body organs affects the ehavior of humans. The behavior that is usually portrayed by individuals is controlled by brain mechanisms. In actual sense, biological psychology deals with the functioning of the brain and how it affects the way human beings behave or rather animals from a general point of view (p.2).
It is important at this point to bring out the reason why psychology is a science. According to Zwemer (2005), a science is a systematic study of something (p.12). Again in this context, psychology has been pointed out as to be a study that employs the use of scientific research and information which is usually gained from procedures that happen to be carefully planned. In essence, the procedures used are scientific methods and as such, planned methods of observation, recording and description of human behavior. Basically, psychology is a science that measures the human behavior.
In relation to this point, sensation is an effect that arises from something in the environment that which has the ability to impact the body systems that gather the information in the surrounding (Social Studies School Service, 2004, p.1).. Accordingly, it involves the issues of tasting, seeing, smelling, touching, smelling, and hearing in the larger perspective. Generally, the combination of the environmental stimulus with the transduction leads to a sensation. The sensation in the short run is processed in the brain and as such, perception is the next thing that takes place as one tries to figure out the sensation. Basically, perception is best described as the organization of the sensory information which is organized in order to bring about meaningful experience (Social Studies School Service, 2004, p.15).
In essence, psychologists only investigate the relationship that exists between the physical stimuli and sensory experiences. Often time, humans are more aware of some sensations than others and this is where the issue of perception is not taken care of. For instance, the humans are more aware of tasting, smelling and seeing among others. Many are times that we see what we expect, want, believe, or need to see since the brain processing and perception depends on the conceived knowledge. Psychological and cultural factors such as individual needs, beliefs, emotions, or expectations may influence perception in the sense that the pre-existing knowledge can influence how one perceives things. According to Chen, (2006), individual needs, beliefs, emotions, or expectations play an important role in influencing the way we perceive things (p.154). Perception being the organization of the sensory information into meaningful experiences, it is easily influenced by the pre-existing knowledge in form of beliefs, emotions, individual needs and expectations of an individual.