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Psychology

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1. According to two-store memory model, memory consists of two pars: long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM). The fact that memory consists of two stores or parts comes from discovery one of the memory pathologies called amnesia. Because of physical trauma brain can be damaged, and so can one of the stores of memory. Usually, it is STM part which is undamaged, while LTM is not working properly. Usually a patient diagnosed with amnesia is unable to remember his/her past. Yet, sometimes it can be vice versa when LTM is working normally and STM is impaired. This fact explains existence of dual or two-store memory model. However, this model was criticized for being too simple.  Atkinson-Shiffrin model has one more store, which is temporary memory (store of information) to the other two stores of memory (Izawa, 1999).

2. There are several levels of processing memory such as distinctiveness, effort, organization, and elaboration. These levels are represented by different models. Depending what type of memory activity is stressed that level of processing memory is based on levels-of-processing effect which is metal process consisting of recall and stimuli. Depending on the level of stimuli and kind of input into memory, recall or memory retrieval can have different levels of intensity.

3. Gestalt theory is one of directions of behaviorism which stresses higher order cognitive processes. One of the focuses of this theory is that our mind engages in constant process of grouping, which is based on such factors as similarity, proximity, simplicity, and closuring. Gestalt theory also explains successful process of problem-soling of children the center of which is ability to see the whole structure of the problem or situation. Learners are encouraged to exercise in classifications and grouping of different objects and actions on different properties and characteristics. Therefore, importance of Gestalt theory should not be underestimated.

4. There are several connectionist models of language processing which help to explain how brain influences how our language is formed and remembered. Production systems help us to understand how our knowledge is stored and organized in our brain; how brain controls and directs our language formation, etc. These processes are important to know and understand especially for educators who are teaching language skills. Also, it helps to understand stages of language acquisition by different age groups. It might be helpful for both teaching native and foreign language. Understanding of how our knowledge is stored and organized helps in developing different methodological exercises, teaching and assessing materials.

5. In order to improve academic studying a student should follow several simple strategies of a successful learner:

Rehearsal strategies: repetition of the material for several times, predicting questions, making schemas and charts of the terms and notions, creating conceptual maps, outlining.

Elaboration strategies: making associations, connecting new material to what you already know, creating mental images, coming up with several explanations to the same issue.

Organization strategies: using any type of organization new information which is the most appealing to you, grouping and listing new terms and notions, creating charts and diagrams.

Comprehension strategies: taking self-tests, setting your goals in learning and checking the points achieved, answering honestly to yourself whether you understand new material (Weinstein, 1987).

Monitoring strategies: self-testing, peer testing, practicing recalling and reciting new material, etc.  

Affective or emotional strategies: making your own working schedule, managing time, setting your own goals and making up rewards, planning working sessions reasonable with usage of short breaks, etc.

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