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Psychology

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Freud teachings are vulnerable to criticisms for being unscientific and too reductionist. Criticisms argue that his theory of psychoanalysis does not provide a complete system of personality, pathology and therapy that has made a significant input to the understanding of human behavior. This is in regard to specific fields such as defense mechanisms and the psychodynamics of dreams. This can however be proved wrong because Freud has established a strong new field against all insurmountable odds such as dismissive and hostile reactions from the scientific, cultural, religious and political proponents of his time (Dufresne, 2003). Although he was blamed for many things he never gave up his endeavors but continued moving forward. When he was confronted with theories and treatment methods, he retaliated with more scientific data based on scientific tests and experiments as evidence. Whether dismissed or misquoted, his application of ideas move beyond the consultation field and have remained significant even in the present world (Dufresne, 2003).

Through his work, Freud proved that it is not difficult to present data as evidence and prove that scientific psychology is in deed real. His work was characterized by boldness, originality and strong conviction. In the theory of neurosis for instance, he revealed the tragic dimension of human existence, specifically in the self-destructive converse of instinctual conflict. His depiction of the human condition has brought about a significant correlation between his work and the Christian understanding of sin and guilt. This reveals that human life is not a uneven ride but a rough one full of all sorts of experimentations. Critics argue that Freud theories were based on clinical impressions rather than controlled empirical methods. However, through his theory of personality he was able to reveal a unified functional system between the id, the ego and the superego using scientific data. Freud can therefore not be blamed for various issues such as preoccupation with sex. Kohut’s theory of self psychology leaps heavily from Freud’s theory of personality. In Kohut’s theory, the concept of self which is the core variable in his theory of self-psychology describes the conflict between id. Ego, and superego which were originally established by Freud (Charles, 2001).

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