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The school of psychoanalysis is one of the mystical achievements in 19th century. Psychoanalysis started as a theory and as a technique that was used in treating neurosis, but currently, the theory has developed and extended into the psychology field in large proportion. In psychology, the theory is being applied in giving explanations of literature, religion and art as well as archaeology supplanting. The future greatest development of this theory is expected to be in the education field. Teachers have been urged to apply the theory when solving problems related to education. Individuals have turned to the importance of psychoanalysis for mental science. Though the theory has been applied in different fields like literature, ethnology, ethics and law, amongst other areas, on body has used psychoanalysis foundation, in explaining physics, chemistry and mathematics, though this can easily be accomplished.
The theory has an appealing tendency of human nature, handling ever interesting subjects of sex and preventing science experiences that seem to be much dull. The psychoanalysis theory particularly captivates those having scientific training that is expected to happen. Freudianism whose thinking methods are absent in scientific precision, the theory is much helpful. In addition, having a very large extend, as an art and theory as well, on top of producing cure to a striking nature in the area of mental medicine, the theory is entrenching in many rivalling fields, and a bids fair to be an obstacle that is formidable in the science pathway for particular years to come.
The postulates of psychoanalysis that is much important, is the existence of something that is consciousness and not consciousness simultaneously. This in other words is designated as the s-subconscious and unconscious minds at the same time. It is taken as the exact correspondence of philosophical third mystical kind of knowledge. This is the knowledge in which an argument is made basing on it poetic trait. It is not the kind of knowledge in which an argument needs the denial of that trait. It is much different from the mystic knowledge, on the other hand, not depending on the experience on conscious stuff. This trait of subconscious is because of dualistic base of Anglo-German psychology that gave raise to psychoanalysis.
This paper summarizes the theory of psychoanalysis and their worth in the current era. Due to lack of practical experience, it is much difficult foe me to provide clear links of theory to practice, or produce a case study essay. Therefore, I will focus on theoretical essences and themes. I will break this paper down into various parts including the history of psychoanalysis, its practicing changes (from long-term to short term, frequency and fees) , implementing and gaining the effects, the criticism faced by Freud, how it’s looked up from the psychoanalytical point of view of clients, culture, society and politics.
In Psycho –analytic theory, as it came up, earlier hypothesis were cantered on id and the ego defence mechanisms. It was known that, the id was the first to arrive on the scene. As an effect, the description of pregenital sexuality was rooted on regressive elements found fantasy. The defence mechanisms of Ego were assumed to be in an organized relationship to anxiety that derives instinct tension and or from loss of object. The issue of separating self and structuring Ego is presupposed by psycho-analytic theory. It has been clarified that the interplay of primitive anxiety and the mechanisms of defence. This was mainly concerned with earliest infancy, and the attention is drawn to the significance of aggressiveness and destructiveness impulses that are deeply grounded as compared to these that are reactive to reactive frustration, as well as connected to anger and hate. Studies have shown that, by this time, environment is much significant as such like times as well as in several methods at all stages. It has been shown that, the study Ego defences takes the researcher back to the manifestations of pregenital id, while the study of Ego psychology takes him to independence. It is true that, a half of the parent-infant theory, deals with the infants. It is the deals with the journey of infants from absolute dependence, via relative dependence, and then the journey of the infant from principles of pleasure to the principle of reality. It also helps in moving from autoerotism to objective relationships. The other remaining half deals with maternal care. This means that, the changes and traits in mothers that meet specific and developing infant wants towards whom she orientates.
According to Freud (1912), the psyche of human consists of many inborn tendencies, impetuous wishes and desires. Their interaction and different dynamics of mind produces conflicts and tensions that can arise from a number of sources. These tensions and conflicts need a number of defence mechanisms in protect maintain or establish equilibrium of the psychic wellbeing, as well as regulating self-esteem. The idea of defence mechanisms is differentiated into mature/immature, psychotic, primitive or neurotic defences, and may be analyzed from many points of view: intrapsychic, interpersonal and interrelation or mixed. Intrapsychic or internal view of defence mechanisms is classical in psychoanalysis; it is believed to be operating in the Unconscious and deals with an anxiety that is arisen from internal or external sources. It has been stated that, Repression is the primary mechanism of defence, which pushes unacceptable wishes from the Conscious into the Unconscious part of mind and unsure they remain Unconscious or disguises them as they: “are incompatible with reality, super-ego demands or other impulses” (Freud, 1915b). According to him, the innate tendency of repression is to return the wishes and impulses to Conscious, therefore tensions and anxiety continues. Due to this continuality, human psyche requires further defences to reduce the resulting conflict, such as denial, displacement and intellectualization, amongst others.
Interrelation/personal models perceive the defence mechanism as a shield that attempts to facilitate the development of “true” self, when one is faced with defective relational environment (Winnicott, 1965). Going with his theory, the maternal care that the infant receives from its mother forms a unit, as he believed that there is no such a thing as a baby. The unit of parent/infant relationship
Human infants can’t start being except under some conditions. Infants come into being differently regardless of favourable or unfavourable conditions. The infant potentiality furthermore does not depend on the conditions in which it is given birth, these are just inherited. In connection with these, Research has shown that, inherited potential only come to play when linked to maternal care. Inherited potentiality involves the growth and development tendency. All emotions’ growth stages can be dated, by basing on the fact that, every stage development has a date which varies from child to child. In cases that such like dates are used in prediction at all, the results will then relay on the assumption that, a maternal care that is much important in the significance respect. Studies have found that; for the inherited potential to develop into an infant, which then develops to a child, and then lastly to independent existence of a child. Due to subject complexity, such like statements have to be made on the satisfactory maternal care, meaning parental care. The classification of satisfactory parental care, are approximately overlapped into three stages, namely; holding, infant and mother living together, and lastly , infant, mother, Abel and I, (Winnicott, 1965).
Holding has been used in reference to actual physical holding of the baby as well as the environmental provisions before the aspect of living with. Apart fro overlapping, it is first initiated before instinctual experiences that might end up determining object relations. This might include inherent existence experience management. During infant development holding stage, Ego changes from the state of being un-integrated to a structured integration. At this stage, health development the infant maintains the capacity of un-integrated re-experience. However, this relays on reliable maternal care, or infant memories of maternal care build-up, beginning in a gradual manner. The study in infant development, health progress attains unit status. As an effect, an infant becomes a person.
In the holding stage other processes that are initiated include down of intelligence and the start of minds, as being distinct things from psyche. At the same time, there appears a joining impulsive behaviour. Another infant development is in the capability of object relations. In this stage, the infant changes from relations to a conceived object, to a relation to an object objectively perceived. This development stops the infant from being merged with mothers to the state of being separated from her. This development is not in a specific way connected to holding, other than being rated to living phase. In the holding stage, the infant is fully dependent. Another factor that needs to be looked upon is hiding of main personalities. The central self issue has been said to being inherited potentiality, which experiences continuity and acquiring in its own manner and at its own speed, a scheme of personal body and the reality of personal psychic. It is then much significant to let the aspect of isolation of self as a trait of health. Object relationships in health are developed on the foundation of compromise that involves individuals in heating and being dishonest. In an addition, the only condition that allows direct relations is the root of regression to an extent of being complex with the mother, (Winnicott, 1990).
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Maternal care involves the entire routine of caring in the whole night and day. It also includes day-day alterations relating to the growth and development of the infant both psychologically and physical. According to my own experience, mothers having the ability of providing good-adequate care can be enhanced to better the service by themselves being cared for in a manner that recommends the significant nature of their work. On the other hand, mothers lacking the ability to take good care of the baby will not be improved by mere instructions, (Winnicott, 1965).
The mental health of an individual, in relation with freedom from liability of psychosis, in most cases is laid down by maternal care. This process when it continues successfully might end up ending unnoticed. This process furthermore forms a continuance of psychological provision that characterizes the state of prenatal. The extension of tissue aliveness as well as the functional health forms the environmental provision. From my own experiences, primitive anxiety provision defences, are seen as a way of splitting mechanisms of defences, based on projections and introjections. The work primitive mechanisms provide provide clues to only one part of the story, and environmental reconstruction of its failures, Coren A (2001).
In infancy and infancy management, the subtle distinction between mothers’ understanding of the needs of her infant, based on both empathy and her change to an understanding that is rooted on things in the infant that depict the need. This is much difficult, especially for mothers basing on the fact that, infants vacillate from one state to the other. The fact that uninstructed mothers tend to adapt to such like conditions when developing their infants satisfactorily, even if they do not have any knowledge on the iron box. Such like details are reproduced in psycho-analytic tasks. It is much ironical that, when all things are moving on smoothly, the infants will have no way of knowing proper provisions and what they have been prevented from. As a matter of fact, that when things are not moving on well, that individuals come to realize, not on maternal care failure, as matter fact, infants start becoming a ware some impingement’ reactions. As a successful effect in maternal care, there is still but in the continuity of the infant of being, as dictated by Ego-strength, which is interrupted, by the maternal care failure consequences, (Freud, 1915b).
It is very much vital to examine the changes that happen to women just about to have a new born, or one who have just have. At first, such changes are psychological, and begin with physical holding of the baby in the womb. It is much important thinking in terms of psychological changes, despite the fact that there might be end criminological factors which modification might affect. Just immediately after conception, women start changing their orientation, and to become concerned with changing conditions in their body, in many ways, they gets a lot of encouragements by her own body to be attracted in them. Some of their senses of self are shifted onto the baby who is growing within her. The most vital factor is that, there are times that come in existence that forms a state of a fair that qualifies the description and the theory that needs to be developed. At the same time, analysts dealing with such conditions also undergo similar orientations. Unlike the mother, the analyst has to be a ware of the sensitivities that develops in him or her, when responding to the immaturity and reliance, (Fairbairn, 1994).
There exist psycho-pathology of such changes in the orientation, and the extremities of abnormalities that concern those studying puerperal insanity. Without any doubt, there are several variations those in qualities that might not make up to constituting abnormality. The factors that constitute abnormalities just depend of distortion degree. In ordinary cases, the special orientation of mothers to the infant caries beyond the process of birth, in such like circumstances, mothers feeling distorted are ready to let go for the infant identification with the infant, is needed to become separated. Good initial care provision is possible, but process completion failure, due to inability to let it come, to an end, for the mother to remain merged with her infant and delay the infant separation period. In any case, it is much difficult for mothers to separate from their infants at a similar speed as at which infants wants to become separates, (Lomas, 1987).
From my point of view, when mothers identify themselves with their own infants, assists them in the identification of her infant’s feelings, hence able to provide the exact needs and desires, in the way of holding and provision of environment in general. In the absence of such identification, I feel that she might not be in a position the infant’s needs. The major factor is physical holding, as it forms the foundation of all more complex concepts of holding, and provision of environment as well. Mothers might also get kids who appear much different from mothers themselves, as a result, they ends up miscalculating. Babies might be either quicker or slower than the mother. This makes some times so heard for the mother to feel what the infant is feeling. This is because; some times what the teachers want is the register. However, going with my experience, mothers who are not distorted by ill-health, or current environmental stresses, accurately knows the needs of their infants, and in addition, like providing what is needed. This forms the essence of maternal care, Freud (1915a).
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With the care that infants receive from their mothers, every infant has the capability of having personal existence, as an effect, starts building up what is referred to as continuity of being. On the continuity of being foundation, the inherited potentiality gradually develops into an infant individually. If the results of maternal care are poor, then infant does not in any case come into existence. This is based on the fact that, there is no continuity of being; while in its place, the build of personality become grounded on the reactions to the environmental impingement, (Winnicott, 1990).
In real sense, it can’t be from direct observation of infants, as from the study of the transferences in the analytical conditions that provides the possibilities of clear view of what infancy itself entails. The infantile dependency work is driven from the transferences study, and the counter-transferences phenomenon, that belongs to the involvement of psycho-analysts with borderline cases. According to my experience and knowledge the legitimate extension involvement of psycho-analysts, which only real alteration being in the diagnosis of the sick patients, the aetiology of whose illness that comes behind Oedipus complex, and might involve distortions during absolute dependence, (Winnicott, 1965).
Transferences and Counter transference
The psychoanalysis’ hallmark is the transferences and counter transferences usages as a means of getting to know the inner world. Variations among psychoanalysis theories, in one way or the other affect transferences and counter transferences. This is because; separating the two from the discussion framework is much difficult. By putting it schematically, approaches that are interpersonal have the chances of explaining transferences by the use of an interaction between having contributions from patient and analysts. Ego psychology looks at transference in terms of the expression of wishes that are instinctual, and the perspective of kleinian, which looks at it just as a representation of unconscious fantasy. According to my experience, there are there exist some differences. Some of these differences are of substance, while others are just due to language variations. On the other hand, there has been no pure approach; the unconscious phantasm representation is not as prerogative to kleinian stand, as compared to the consideration of instinct of Ego psychology. As a phenomenon, there is a general agreement that transferences exist. Despite all these, the debates concerning transference content still exist. For instance, individuals are still debating on phenomena that are transferred, or the interpretations of transferences as only being effective therapeutic interventions, (Homes & Bateman, 1995).
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At first, transferences were seen as a contaminated influence of Cathartic methods. It has been discovered that, transference does not rise due to suggestion alone, and that, the relation that exist between the analyst and the patient is of much significant in the understanding of internal feelings. As an effect, transference is taken as a pathological expression of the oedipal attachment of the analyst representing earlier relations of the individual to parental figures. There is a distinction between transference mechanisms that that show past experiences and the transference dynamics which in the present conditions are aroused. This double concept of transference continues being debated on amongst contemporary psychoanalysis between relative significance of the present and the past unconscious, (Fairbairn, 1994).
Research has shown that transference interpretations brings out and allows reconstruction of the past experience in the present, and once the achievement of insight into it, it assists in overcoming past trauma . It acknowledges that infantile neurosis is the key to the analytic work. Its emphasis is the reconstruction of the past, and accommodates transferences as potential hindrances. This is according to the classical definition. The modern view states that, it is the coming up with latent meanings, organized that are evoked by the analytical relation’s intensity. This entails the examination of present-day wishes, formation of traits, as well as individual expectations details, and how they are affected by the past. It does not take into considerations the infantile neurosis as the sole description for the adult pathology. It does not also consider transference as a simplest pathway to cure; as an effect, it does not emphasize on reconstruction. As an effect, transference has become a wider aspect that involves the interplay between the analyst and the patient that represents mind conflict, as well as reflecting interactions of the internal object representations. It forms a medium through which internal drama of individuals played out with new experiences that is affected by the past. Both modern and classical views interact in a very complex way, (Homes & Bateman, 1995).
The classical view point, the psychoanalysis looks at transference as a reality distortion. Transference represents infantile wishes of individuals that are pressurizing gratification through the current relations. As an effect, intrapsychic displaces the past projected onto a current relation, making the relation to be experienced, not as it is, other than as the mosaic of the current and the past. There exists a very strong impact from the past that drives the perception of the patient towards the analyst as understanding and caring, whilst the other drives the patient towards rejections. It has been emphasized that, elements distorting transference are those that the client sees, and experience what is expected to be seen.
The implication of other modern approaches is underlying knowable reality by the name psychic reality, which is accessed through defences’ interpretations both erotic and idealising. Transferences are looked upon as being part of pathological organizations and the interpretations concentrates on transferences idealization as a defence against the hostility and destructiveness that aims at destructiveness the analyst. Object relation theory development also influences the patients’ perceptions. The concept of projective identification and externalization of internal items are both significant to transference in the analytic process and everyday relations.
It has been agreed that transferences can be found in all relations as well as within patient’s attitudes to institutions. The development and the observation of transference phenomena are clearly favoured by the analytical situations. Many attempts have been tried in tightening the transference definition, as well as broadening it. There have been some attempts to try to confine the transference concept into; transference of libidinal impulses, defence transference. All these different transference concepts follow the classical approach in which earlier infantile wishes as well as defensive deeds that are repeated in the present. In real sense, individuals in real sense seem to be harsh, rejecting, amongst others. The analyst’s work is to sport interferences as they happen and then conveys this kind of understanding in a mutative interpretation. Transferences have also been defined as an unconscious phantasm, showing relations of the internal world. Given that within a certain framework, internal world entails continual interactions unconscious thoughts, experiences and knowledge with the truth both in the current and past, seems as though the entire mental life has been affected by transferences in one way or the other. It is true that, not everyone can be transference. The analyst as real individual, it is states that they have engaged many tasks that are specific with the patient. It has been stated that some interactions with the analysts’ correct earlier responses to the real environmental failures, hence can not be transference as they have become air repetition, (Lanyado, 1999).
Intercultural matters concerning therapeutic process
The psychotherapists of infant and an adolescent today are much knowledgeable on the significance in an emotional life of different cultures that their patients and themselves originate from, as compared with the way you are today and how you use to be in the past. London comprises of hundreds and hundreds of social mix of cultures. Immigrants do come with their own cultures and traditions. The histories and culture of the immigrants might be tremendous horrible experiences of war, loss of life, torture, as well as oppression. Other immigrants might have come on the basis of looking for better education and work chances. Immigration experience of families, who still holds? As an effect the migrants need to strike a deal. This deal will contain balance between of striking a deal between culture integration to avoid being assimilated. Due to the difficulties faced during the week, there are many counselling centres treating members from the same communities. On the other hand, there are several specialized therapists who are not culture cantered. The process of taking into consideration other factors in the therapy are much complex. In most cases, it is much prone to misinterpretation. There is neither formula nor pressing needs for the therapists to be in a position of unpicking the relations between emotional distress, resulted from family dysfunction in any culture and issues of cultures that are specific to such a specific cultural group, (Lanyado, 1999).
The current trends in the conceptualization of personal as well as social difficulties can prove confusing for therapists in their efforts of working across all forms of culture. For instance, some simplistic social explanation that can be used in the understanding sociological explanations can be used in the process of understanding behaviours without understanding how the issue happened to prevent both mental pain and conflicts. Individuals from all sorts of cultures tend to adopt several mechanism of defence. This does not mean that both cultural and social factors are insignificant in any way. It is not ethical for professional to include cross cultural consideration in their work. All social service therapists regardless of place of work, neither in working in special cultural treatment services or working with social service setting, need to know gross cultural currency in their work.
Cultural and racial differences between therapists and patients involve matters dealing with unconscious meaning, at different levels. In many times therefore, activating very primitive defences in therapists and patients. This has to be acknowledged and well utilized during and after therapy. There exist serious consequences in overestimating or ignoring them all. Ignoring them means avoiding therapists’ and patients’ everyday’s reality. Overestimating them represents efforts to deny and negate deeper intrapsychic conflict. In children and adolescent, the matter of identification forms a continuous shift between their own culture and main culture values where they have been bought up. In most cases, they are in positions of accommodating this shift. When there are three gaining. Intrapsychic conflicts things are not moving in the right direction.
Learning the theories during this term has taught me that an application of theory is not the focus of the therapeutic practice. It is all about the experience of client-therapist relationship (my italics). As M Jacobs (1998) said: “Theory only serves therapists and counsellors well if it serves the client well.” Adding that, “it is primarily the client who makes theory and not theory that makes therapy.” M Jacobs (1998:47) If the theory does not make therapy then I see it more of a guide for the therapists and counsellors. For the facilitator of the healing process the theory is better applied to understanding what one needs to do. And for each case that can be different.
Recommendations to physicians practicing psycho-analysis
The first problem confrontation with the analyst dealing with more than one patient in a day. It’s the work of that require keeping in mind all innumerable names amongst others. The mistakes involved in this remembering process happen only at times and places at which an individual is disturbed by some individual considerations. Rarely does the materials brought up by other patients. In places that dispute does exists because of patients as to whether or not he has said certain things, the doctor is always in the right.
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Amongst the claims of psycho-analysis is the distinction. It has never been good to work on a case scientifically, while treatment is still proceeding for piecing together its structures. By trying for the selection that patients have foregone.
Out of educative activities in which psycho-analytic treatment devolves on the doctor without deliberate intention on his part. After resolving developmental inhibition, it seems the doctors get themselves in a position that aims at indicating new trends’ targets that have been liberated. The doctors need to hold themselves in cheque and take the capability of the patient other than following his own guidelines. The doctor has to be somehow tolerant to the patient’s weaknesses. In addition, he has to be content in case of won back, (Freud, 1912).