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The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) was published in the year 2000 and is a multi-axial tool of diagnosis that is often used by psychiatrist, clinicians, medical professional, and psychologists for the classifications of the disorders that the human people undergo in their day to day lives. There is Axis I of this type which cover the symptom disorders which are the typified by unwelcome types of impairment and or distress; and the Axis II which covers the personality disorders that are exemplified by the inflexible personality traits which bring about distress and or impairment. The personality disorders tend to be pervasive, enduring, and subjectively indistinguishable.

Eating disorders

The eating disorders that exist are characterized by the cognitive estimation that a person’s physical shape represents and reflects the person’s worth or value (Hansell & Damour, 2008). There are other causes which include compensatory behavior such as fasting, medications, or excessive exercise which can occur in exclusion or concurrently with the purging behavior. These are components of the bulimia nervosa which is a complex disorder that is rooted in the genetic disposition though they are precipitated by other socio-cultural influences, emotional responses, and cognitive estimations which cause eating disorders.

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Emotionally, it is thought and discussed that the eating disorders often arise after interpersonal relations. The history of ridicule and teasing, trouble with other family members, history of sexual or physical abuse, and difficulty expressing feelings and emotions are known and also thought to contribute to some development of a disorder in eating. There are also other feelings that are encompassed and thought to cause eating disorders which include problems with one’s body image, feelings of unattractiveness and inadequacy.

Biological factors and genetic factors are known to cause eating disorders and account for 54% of the total eating disorders especially in the United States. Any individual who has a sister or a mother who have anorexia nervosa is twelve times likely to develop eating disorders. Twins who are identical are also known to develop the eating disorder due to the components of their DNA. The hypothalamus is known to be a brain structure that is responsible for regulating the eating behaviors and in case it does not trigger the normal satiation then an individual is likely to develop the eating disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  

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Substance disorders

The substance disorders are categorized by DSM-IV-TR to be of both illegal and legal substance and this categorization is based on maladaptive relationships which exist between the drug and the user as is revealed by compulsive use of the drug, the loss of one’s control over the use of the used drug, and also the continuation of the use of the drug despite many negative circumstances that may erupt (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Emotionally, the co-dependence plays a major role in addiction. However, the psychodynamic perspective proposes that the interpersonal relations, self esteem, ego or superego, and attachment issues could all contribute to formation of addiction. Other emotional factors that may lead to addiction include the maladaptive coping skills and the defense mechanisms, fears that surround the negative social appraisal and also the cognitive thoughts.

The emotional causes of the personality disorder comprise of maladaptive defense mechanisms and also other problematic childhood relationships which are potential causes along with projection and temperament. These substances include hallucinogens, alcohol, cannabis, caffeine, opioids, inhalants, nicotine, and phencyclidine (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009). The substance abuse is brought about the expectation of a sense of relaxation, less emotional stress and good feelings.

There are also biological factors that lead to substance abuse and also addiction. One is the effects that the drugs used exert on the individual who uses them and the second factor is biological status of the person who takes and uses the drugs. There are biological constitutions of a person that are inherited that affect the response of an individual to certain drugs. These factors also control the physiological predisposition to becoming an abuser of drugs.

Sex/gender disorders

These disorders include the sexual pain disorders, gender identity disorder and sexual dysfunctions that are either sexual arousal or sexual desire. When dealing with this type of disorder it is imperative to have in mind that abnormal and normal behaviors only occur on a continuum and the reasons of distress and impairment most often show some level of abnormality.

Most cases of painful sexual intercourse are caused by physical factors that include genital scarring or infections, medication side effects, lack of adequate lubrication or also as a result of female circumcision. The disorders of sexual pain are shown by interpersonal or distress difficulty as an outcome of excessive pain during sex (Aaron, Arthur & Denise, 2004). There are also other cognitive factors which perpetuate the sexual pain disorders which include occasional attempts of intercourse resulting in penetration failure and pain which reinforces anxiety and fear and this maintains the adverse feedback cycle (David & Reissing, 2007).

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There are sexual disorders often referred to as paraphilias which entail disordered relationships that are sexual and aberrant sexual preferences. These include fetishism, exhibitionism, sexual sadism, voyeurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, and transvestic fetishism.

Personality disorders

These include schizoid individuality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suspicious personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, theatrical personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and the dependent personality disorder. This could be caused by biological factors that an infant was born being highly sensitive and this marks a start of disorders. These patients suffer from maladaptive expectancies and beliefs, self-perpetuating and self-defeating behavioral strategies and fixed thought patterns and always choose solitary activities (Hesse & Thylstrup, 2009)

Dementia in old people is also known to be a major cause of the personality disorder especially the sexual disorder. There are also biological factors that cause the personality disorders and these include the inborn temperamental abnormalities which lead to intense emotional and impulsivity instability among the patients. These traits are heritable. The personality disorder can also be caused by reduced serotonin activity especially in the brain (Aaron, Arthur & Denise, 2004).

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