Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological System Theory states that an individual’s social development is directly influenced by five levels of environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. The school belongs to the Microsystems level of the Bio-Ecological System Theory and it functions as a transformation agent in the social development of a child. Children learn new psychomotor skills, rules, language, and interactive social skills within the school environment.
According to the Bloom’s Taxonomy, the learning/educational objectives are divided into three domains: Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. The learning activities within the three domains are differentiated as shown below
a) Cognitive: this domain involves thinking, comprehension, knowledge, application and synthesis. In mathematics, learners will be made to understand and recall a given concept.
b) Affective: learners’ attitudes towards a given subject will be changed so that they could love the subject they once hated.
c) Psychomotor: learners will be taught how to apply acquired skills into practice.
Vygoysky’s theory of cognitive development states that children’s thinking processes are affected by the social knowledge which are either transmitted through psychological art, number, language or technical materials such as books. Language is the main mode of transferring knowledge. In a typical school setting, teachers extensively use graphical arts and language as the main modes of instruction.
Mainstreaming is the concept of educating learners with special needs in the ordinary regular classes depending on the students’ skills and knowledge. Inclusion is an educational approach in which learners with special needs and disabilities are partially or wholly educated with their non-disabled counterparts. Finally, integration is the unconditional assimilation of the non-disabled and disabled students.
Example of disruptive behaviors common among the students in the classroom setting include interrupting discussion, passing note during the class time, or engaging peers in private conversation. Extra work will calm them.