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The phenomenon of memory is a development recognized through senses rather than by perception or logic. It gives us the prospect to sense intelligent information, sort it out, and then preserve it in the long-term memory where it can be retrieved later. It involves five main processes, which are essential in the life of all human beings (Baddeley, 1999, p. 43).
The first step is information processing. This includes programming, storage, and recovery of the information. It is then followed by a three stage processing sculpt that involves different parts of memory. They are sensory memory, short term, or working memory, which increases capacity and extends the duration of the short-term memory, and the long-term memory where information is stored permanently. The third step is getting information and encoding it in preparation for processing or retrieval. It is followed by a quite complex process on how to encode the information gotten, and it includes involuntary processing, followed by comprehensive check that arranges, spaces and positions information in order. The last one is how the information is programmed in a systematic manner and brought out verbally.
Most psychologists suppose that human memory has three components. They describe it as a process that involves information being transmitted to different parts of the memory. The primary section is the sensory register that holds the information one receives it in its original and encoded form. Everything we see, hear, and sense is stored in the sensory register. It has a large capacity that can hold large volumes of information. However, this information does not last long. For instance, visual information lasts for few seconds; therefore, to keep it for a longer period, we need to move it to the working memory. In this case, the information is registered and several tasks performed. It is then passed on to the long-term memory for storage (Pashler & Yantis, 2004, p. 429).
Once information has been registered and stored in the long-term memory, it has to be retrieved for usage. Retrieval of this information is triggered by cues and this is possible in four ways. The initial is recall of information, which involves the ability to retrieve information without queuing it. A clear example is responding to questions of filling blank spaces in a test. It is then followed by recollection, which involves access of information in bits from partial memories, and reconstructing it. For instance, writing an essay in an exam requires bit-by-bit retrieval of what has been previously learnt. The third type is recognition, which involves the retrieval of information after experiencing it while the last one is relearning which involves revisiting of past information. This is an easier way of remembering information in the future and can advance the power of memories. Psychologists agree that some memories are easier to retrieve than others are. Those used on a regular basis and those that have a powerful expressive relationship can be more vivid. The difficulty in the retrieval of information may be because of poor encoding, storage, or retrieval (James, 2007, p. 59).
A sensation is defined as the reflexive process of bringing information from outside into the body and brain while perception is the way we interpret information brought to the brain by the senses. In a normal process, receptors convert stimuli into impulse and these results to a sensation. Perception then follows where the brain translates it into significant information.
The main differences between these two terminologies are; while sensation is pickup of information by sensory receptors, perception is the interpretation of what is sensed. Sensation is something physical that can be seen or touched while perception is thought or figured out. The former is a feeling while the later is actually thinking (Pashler & Yantis, 2004, p. 427).
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