The main psychological approaches towards understanding human behavior.
There are several psychological approaches towards understanding of the human mind. This is explained by different theories that have been discussed by various psychologists. By understanding his client, Douglas had no option than using the combination of all these theories to come up with the best results. The main theories that have been in place, which can be very helpful to Douglas as a social worker to counsel his client Anthony, are as follows.
Behaviorism Theory Approach
This is an approach that help the social workers like in the case of Douglas to understand how the effect of the external factors contribute towards the behavior change of Mr. john's family especially Anthony. It will help him establish the external factor that has got into Anthony's mind producing his thought that her mother condemns. This theoretical approach says that every individual get to the world as a clean slate. Otherwise, the environment that one lives in behaves like a chalk that writes in the slate-making one to behave in a certain way (Malim, & Birch, 1998.). By learning the environment that one lives in, ones behaviors can be easily established. Therefore, this approach will help Douglas in establishing the behaviors of Anthony by checking the environment that he always engage in during school and at home as this could have contributed very much in his behaviors.
Through this approach, Douglas is able to learn how Anthony interprets his environmental factors that affect him on daily basis. The approach ensures that ones is able to come up with ones behaviors through looking at the way one is able to succumb to external factors and the way the come up with behaviors that reflect his social reality. He could establish Anthony's behaviors by subjecting him to some exercise to see how he is able to understand the social realities. The behaviors of Anthony can be well understood by the use of this approach by seeing his reaction to the external variables.
The approach proposes that for one to know how one react, it is good to know their hierarchal needs and the extent at which they have been met (Gross, 2001). For example, the anxiety of Anthony towards going to school and the amount of the work that he is given at home make him very reluctant toward going there making him very defiant. Therefore, Douglas can get the reason for such anxiety by using this approach to get his would/should dilemma of the situation.
The approach stipulate that everybody behave in certain way depending on the influence that one has through the interconnection of conscious and unconscious thoughts that one go through. The approach shows that individual behaviors can be influenced by the influence that emanate from conscious mind, which is delivered to the unconscious mind. In each individual, in our case here Anthony has three thought components. The first one is the biological psychology that helps one to behave in a masculine or feminine way.
The second one is the ego, that shows how one social self-behaviors and how to regulate them in affecting the biological ways. The last component that one has is the superego that helps one to generate certain behaviors beyond and individual level thus helping them to understand and identify with a certain social identity.
This approach will help Douglas to identify the cause of Anthony's behavior in relation to the potential fixation of his behavior of a possible negative effect that happened in her early age. This means that Anthony's behaviors may possibly have been caused by a negative effect that deterred his early development stage thus developing the behaviors he is having. Anthony behaviors may be caused by a repressing a certain effect in his unconscious mind (Ewan, 2006).
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The approach will ensure that Douglas establish the cause of Anthony's behavior through establishing the way he has been brought up and the possible things that might affected his mind development through her mother. The approach helps one to establish behaviors by ensuring that they understood wht happen between and during which a certain stimulus is induced in ones mind and before one takes an action. The approach will help Douglas to come up with the possible way of why Anthony behaves the way he does in relation to internal mind function. This approach stipulates that ones behavior may be brought by the way the mind develops through looking at what might have been brought by the surrounding causing a certain mind set.
Biological Psychological Approach
Douglas is capable of using this approach by checking the age of Anthony as it shows that ones behaviors can be affected by the change in age due to hormonal and chromosomal factors. As Anthony is in a teen age, he must be producing some hormones like testosterone that is helping her discover her sex thus change in behaviors.
The approach as said earlier, one become how he/ she is because of the external and internal factors that are in the environment that one lives in. it emphasizes the importance of external factors towards an individual life. For Anthony too behave the way he is behaving, there must be external forces that are working towards him. These factors are paramount inn the way Anthony produces his thoughts and consequently, his behaviors.
External factors causes classical and operant conditioning in ones mind. Inn classical conditioning, the environmental factors regulates the way ones biological response due to being exposed to a certain factor for a long time making one-change behaviors to accommodate the effect. This is introducing to ones biological response due to repetitiveness. This makes one to respond to a certain effect in a conditioned way. In this way, Douglas can establish the factors affecting Anthony so that to know the reason of him being defiant to her mother and the reason of him unwilling to go to school. In operant conditioning, the approach help to know the link that Anthony has that affirm the behavior he has. Operant conditioning is established if there is any reinforcement that an individual has in association to his behavior of reacting to a certain way concerning what stimulate his behaviors (Weine, Freedheim, & Graham, 2003).
In the understanding of this approach and it contribution towards the behavior of an individual, we are supposed to know the hierarchal need of an individual and understand the way they are met. Depending on how intellectual and psychological needs are met, they have direct impact towards ones behaviors. They are portrayed on how one relates with the social realities. An example, if one happens to engage in certain thing and try to solve it with failure, he/she develops a 'would/should dilemma' that causes anxiety. This is mostly brought by tension due to failure to accomplish a certain duty. This will make an individually to start behaving in a manner to avert his/ her failure like in the case of Anthony who may be defiant due to such effect.
In this approach, the behaviors are changed due to the effect that is caused by the conscious and unconscious mind setting. In conscious mind, these are things we are aware of and we are able to control them. However, such things have a great effect in our unconscious thoughts such as dreams. Such thoughts make one to behave in certain manner as directed by the conscious mind to unconscious behaviors.
To understand how this approach works, one has to check the biological, ego and the superego of an individual as they work together influencing the way one behaves. These components develop in relation to the age in which ones in. For Douglas to establish the cause of the behaviors portrayed by Anthony, he must get his growth process and possible occurrence that might have happened between either age clusters. According to Freud, he divided ones development age and analyzed what happens. He gave the first age cluster of between 0-1 years as an oral development stage where her/his preoccupy one mouth. The second cluster is the age between 1-2 years. This age is called anal development. One becomes aware of his/ her excretion capacity. The next stage between 3-6 years is calleed the phallic development. An individual became aware of his /her sex between these ages. Latent development stage follows where it occurs between the ages of 6-12 years. In this stage, an individual id able to have social identity. The genital stage follows which the last stage is according to feud. At this stage, individual became more aware of their adult reproductively (Staub, & Green, 1992.).
The approach holds that a certain behavior can be developed by the act of fixation. This is where a certain behaviors seem to emanate from a certain stage. This is caused by being affected by a certain circumstance that negatively affects ones behavior. An example of the behaviors that Anthony is portraying may be dated to a certain age development cluster. This is because may be a certain stage in his life was affected by a certain drawback and the behaviors he is portraying is a reflection of fixated behaviors.
This approach show how the human mind develops over the wide range of time as one is affected by the surrounding. From the age of 0-2 years, the child is in `schemata' stage where he/she has basic thoughts. From 2-7 years, the child graduate to a symbolic thought stage that is known as `centration'. The child in this stage is able to differentiate aspects of situation. The last stage is the preoperational stage. This stage is from seven years and above. The individual is able to have reversible thinking which help the individual in the solving the problems.
Looking at the above stage of development, Douglas is able to establish Anthony's behaviors and know if his development has been consistent or he is a late developer. A person may be behaving like a person who is younger than her age due to late developing.
Motivation and behavior
The motivation and behavior can be analyzed by use of different psychological approaches. In relation to the way Douglas should tackle Anthony's behaviors, the approaches will help in the change process. The first approach that can be used to create motivation towards the behavior change is the behaviorist approach. Due to the complexity of human mind, people are able to comply with or rebel certain acceptable social requirements. This thing is making Anthony to behave in away that her mother is not appreciating and Anthony has to device a way to collect his way. This is through giving token to avert his behaviors and therefore behavior change.
A token can be introduced to Anthony in the attempt to change the behaviors. For example, Douglas can decide to give him some present when he goes to school and when he conforms to good behaviors. This will help him change his behaviors slowly. He may use the technique of offering him what he loves most. This is called biofeedback and used to the people who have anxiety. By realizing what he is going through, he will be able to use the motivational methods to change his behaviors through changing external forces through motivational inducement.
According to Abraham Et al 2000, another way of changing of behaviors by motivational method is systematic desensitization. Douglas should ensure that he know if Anthony is having a certain phobia. From there he should ensure that he introduce a gradual exposure in an environmental that is controlled to come into term with the phobia. The gradual motivational method of behavior change will ensure that Douglas manipulate Anthony is thinking way making him to have positive altitude. By this, he will have changed his behaviors to the ones that are required by the society and his family.
In general, the behavior change of Anthony is a process that requires even his environment to be changed for him to come completely into term with his mother and the school administration through the use of psychological approaches. Douglas has a great challenge to ensure that his family and himself has contributed to his behaviors and without all of them participating in the process, the process will be hard. Otherwise, Douglas as a social worker should ensure that for every approach that he decides to use to avert a certain behavior, it should be consistence with behavior change. He should also ensure that he know the cause of the behavior and how to tackle it.