Skinner declared that positive reinforcement is more advanced than punishment in changing the behavior that why he stated that punishment was not the reverse of positive reinforcement. However, the outcome of positive reinforcement leads to enduring conduct change unlike punishment where modification in manners is only short-term but afterwards it’s accompanied by several negative drawbacks. He assumed that optimistic reinforcement is like addition of pleasant motivation to boost certain behavior or reaction. Skinner further described reinforcement as creating a condition that an individual appreciates or eliminating the state that he dislikes while punishment is eradicating the condition an individual loves and building up the one he hates. Several behavioral psychologists purely refer to reinforcement or punishment as excluding divergence to cover up ensuing ecological modification. The reinforcement theory was considered to be among the inspiration theories that declared positive reinforcement behavior stands to repetitive unlike behavior that is not reinforced stand few chances of being repeated (Hergenhahn, 2000).
Gestalt psychologists was opposed by many views such as productive thinking which involved settling a dilemma about to happen since it was immediate discerning spontaneous reaction to circumstances and ecological interaction .However ,this imminent dealings happened in three process which were very crucial like unconscious leap in thinking. The other process that Gestalts psychologists had conviction concerning insight deals was improved amount of speed when it comes to psychological processing and also the degree of short –circuiting happening in a situation where there is ordinary way of thinking. The reproductive thinking was among the opposed views since it involved solving a dilemma with prior experiences and comprehending matters that occur deliberately. The other upcoming views that are challenges Gestalt psychology are Nothing-Special View, Neo-Gestalt view in addition The Three-Process View. The phrase that was openly antagonist to the scheme of psychology was illustrated as “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is often used when explaining Gestalt theory (Hergenhahn, 2000). This catch phrase refers to the insight of composition as a whole: even though every individual part has its own meaning, if combined, the meaning can change. Therefore, our perception of the piece is based on our understanding of all bits and pieces working in unison. It also implies that the whole as a unit is better compared to the individual parts that make up the whole.