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Discuss biological, psychodynamic, learning-based, psychosocial-rehabilitation, and family intervention treatments of schizophrenia

Treating schizophrenia has continued to be a challenge where psychological interventions have been widely used (Pilling, et al. 2002). However there is need for enough randomized controlled trials that will give comparisons against active interventions and standard care. The four types of psychological interventions include cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), family intervention, cognitive remediation and social skills training.

Family therapy is able to prevent the effects of schizophrenia where it prevents the outcomes of psychotic relapses and readmission. CBT also prevents schizophrenia in that it causes improvement in the mental condition and also results to lower drop-out rates (Pilling, et al. 2002). Family intervention is best for patients of schizophrenia who have careers, while CBT is more useful for those patients with symptoms that are resistant.

Antipsychotic medications are also used in the treatment of schizophrenia, where they are mostly used to treat the symptoms and allow the patient to be more effective in their functioning. However they can have side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle spasms, tremor, dry mouth and blur vision (Pilling, et al. 2002).

The psychosocial treatment combined with the antipsychotic is the best way to treatschizophrenia where the psychosocial will involve supportive therapy; the patient is help to adjust to the situation and relations therefore helping in aiding their recovery. This is by illness management and coping with symptoms.

Rehabilitation, which includes social and vocational rehabilitation; where patients of schizophrenia are taught basic skills in life to function in the families and society is also applied (Pilling, et al. 2002). The rehabilitation depends on the goals of the patient, degree of illness, and patient’s objectives. Training may include transportation procedures, finance management, communication, and living arrangement among others.

Family also helps a lot in the treatment of the schizophrenia patients (Pilling, et al. 2002). With enough family support the patient will recover easily in that they may avoid relapse and be able to function more properly.

Define and Describe the Features of the Various Sexual Dysfunctions Discussed In Your Textbook

Sexual dysfunctions refers to the difficulty that a couple may experience during sexual intercourse which may encompass; the desire to have sex, arousal, or having an organism. This needs a comprehensive approach in treatment so that it is addressed effectively (Balon, & Segraves, 2009). The patient also needs to accept the situation and be able to tackle the problem as advised by a practitioner. The sexual dysfunctions are categoorized into four i.e. sexual desire, arousal, pain, and orgasm disorders.

Sexual desire disorder is also known reduced libido where the patient does not have the urge to have sexual intercourse with the partners for some period of time. It may be general lack of the desire or lack of desire with the current partner (Balon, & Segraves, 2009). This normally starts after that patient has normal periods of sexual activity for a while, then the desires goes down or disappears. The causes may be several including hormonal changes in the body for men and women, fatigue, psychiatric conditions, aging, medicines, and pregnancy (Balon, & Segraves, 2009).

Sexual arousal disorders are frigidity in women and erectile dysfunction in men (Balon, & Segraves, 2009) (Balon, & Segraves, 2009). The partners are not able to maintain themselves for the entire act of sex. The penis is not able to maintain its erection while the vagina becomes less lubricated and this causes a lack of sexual excitement. In orgasm disorder the patient is not able to reach orgasm or has delays in attaining it (Balon, & Segraves, 2009). This can be caused by physical, medications, or psychological issues in the patient. Sexual pains involve pains in the sexual parts which may result from the intercourse. This may be physical injury due to low excitement or rape. There may also be painful intercourse also known as dyspareunia or vaginismus which may cause sexual pains (Balon, & Segraves, 2009).

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