Free Custom «Depression and Anxiety» Essay Paper

Free Custom «Depression and Anxiety» Essay Paper

While mental health unquestionably stands for one of the biggest parts of well being, nowadays, more and more humankind find themselves in a state of depression or/and anxiety. Notwithstanding, that there are loud of different therapy and medical ways to treat these diseases, still there are plenty of space to grow knowledge in. This can be done by indifferent ways, for ex. adapting old therapies with the present time issues or finding issues in the old therapies which seem to work, but not with the whole power; always keep up with the new relevant researches and answer the questions:

  1. What hypothesis author states?
  2. What research methods have been used?
  3. What conclusions were made?
  4. What impact researches make?

What hypothesis author states?

„A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Cognitive Bias Modification on Anxiety and Depression„ (Lauren S. Hallion and Ayelet Meron Ruscio, 2011) is the perfect example of earlier made statements. This research was based on the will to solve unresolved questions about Cognitive Bias Modifications (CBM) and its underlying theory: whether CBM leads to changes in anxiety and depression and to identtify factors that predict the degree of changes. In order to prove the statement there were made three aditional goals:

  1. To evaluate the extent to which CBM successfully change cognitive bases.
  2. To evaluate the extent to which CBM changes symptoms of anxiety and depression.
  3. To investigate hypothesized moderators (change in cognitive bias, symptom construct, cognitive bias targeted, clinical status of the study sample, control group, and number of sessions) of the effect of CBM on cognitive biases and on symptoms.

What research methods have been used?

Researchers used meta-analysis, because:„meta-analysis allows researchers to overcome the problem of low statistical power that palgues most psychopathology research.“; „meta-nalysis lets estimate the size of the efect to determine its likely clinical significance.“;“meta-analysis permits a statistical assesment of the extent to which hypothesized moderators influence the effect size.“ (Lauren S. Hallion and Ayelet Meron Ruscio, 2011). There were 45 earlier studies (that fitted the requirement) used and the number of participants sums to 2 591, experimental and control groups all in all.

There were several criteria to select studies for this particular meta-analysis: design, method of bias modification, symptom assessment, sample, additional interventions, study stimuli and available data.

“All effect sizes were coded such that a positive effect size reflected lower anxiety and depression in the treatment group relative to the control group.“ (Lauren S. Hallion and Ayelet Meron Ruscio, 2011).

Participants had to show state of depression and anxiety.

What conclusions were made?

It was found, that CBM exerted a small, positive effect on anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest that only through interaction with a stressor depression and anxiety might be exerted by cognitive biases.

Also results showed that CBM was asociated with a small reduction in anxiety symptoms, but not depression. This might happened because the CBM possibly trains participants to avoid negative stimuli. Still the effects on anxiety would be expected to be temporary.

No significance made to depression might mean that CBM is not so influentual and offers just a limited value in treating it.

 All in all, the rusults them selves denies the main hipothesis, because the impact of CBM is just valuable for anxiety and the value is just momentary.

This type of research is very usefull because it lets to evaluate previouse researches, still the results are not surprising and only shows the gaps which can be made because of the research methods are not perfect. Although it was a bit dissapointing to find no significante effect of CBM to depression.

What hypothesis author states?

„The Symptom Perception Hypothesis Revised: Depression and Anxiety Play Different Roles in Concurrent and Retrospective Physical Symptom Reporting“(M. Bryant Howren and Jerry Suls, 2011) states that:

The primary aim of this study was to replicate and extend earlier findings regarding the relationships between N/NA, anxious affect, depressive affect, and retrospective physical symptom reports. By including measures that differentiate between anxious and depressive affect, the prediction regarding the greater role of depressive affect in symptom recall can be more fully tested.

The revised SPH predicts that anxious (vs. depressive) affect should be uniquely associated with reporting of concurrent physical symptoms because of hypervigilance to potentially threatening stimuli.

Association between depressive affect and inflated recall of past physical symptoms can be demonstrated experimentally.

What research methods have been used?

Main research method was experiment which lasted for mainly 3weeks, 3 studies. Questionnaires and a physical symptom checklist were used in order to research the main statement. Depressive affect was researched with the help of the Beck Depression Inventory, and NEO Personality Inventory—Revised was used to asses the personality. „Physical symptomatology was assessed using a checklist developed by Larsen and colleagues and used by others (Larsen, 1992; Larsen & Kasimatis, 1991; see Brown & Moskowitz, 1997).“( M. Bryant Howren and Jerry Suls, 2011). Series of questionnaires related to their attitudes, beliefs, and habits in addition to a writing exercise.

What conclusions were made?

N/NA played no significant role once depressive affect was entered into the statistical equation. Same results appeared across gender and were obtained both for the BDI and the NEO–Depression facet scale scores. Depressive affect is more linked to infilated symptom recall than global negative affect.

The induction of anxious affect was related to higher levels of concurrently reported physical symptoms.

Situational inductions of emotion can influence concurrent and retrospective reports of physical symptoms.

What impact researches make?

Impact is more or less not as expected. Mainly researches had good statements, which came from the older and reliable researches, but still conclusions where very disappointing.

Psychology, and also research methods has to keep up with time and be more easier predictable then they are now.



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