Two factors causing environmental change are increased demand for natural resources and institutional arrangements. This view is criticized as it states that only centralized government and private property could sustain the resources. Effective governance can be achieved through multileveled institutions to create rule compliance in users.
Governing these resources is a struggle because it involves balancing between human interests and earth’s sustainability. Such needs an effective governance mechanism achieved when resources and uses can be monitored and the information understood, there is moderate change in the use and users of the resources, frequent communication among users, exclusion of outside users and users supporting monitoring and rule enforcement.
Pressure on resource governance institutions are widely influenced thus need to link governance from the global to local level. Adaptive governance relies on factual information as well as information on values and uncertainty. Conflict needs to be dealt with because of different power and values while participatory process can be used to test alternative strategies in conflict resolution.
Rule compliance can be enhanced through imposing sanctions for offenders formally and informally which should be accepted by users. Resources should be allocated for monitoring and enforcement as lack would negate the efforts. Financial incentives can also be used. Infrastructure; physical, technological and institutional should be provided.
Strategies that meet the requirements of adaptive governance are analytical deliberation among stakeholders to agree on rules. Nesting involves structuring the institutions in many levels hence avoiding centralization and finally having a variety of governance institutions.