Manning is a lecturer of WashingtonUniversity. She has written many articles on the issue of gender politics and social development change to a transitional perception. She has published many articles which reveal the origin of gender conflict. Most of her work draws attention to the Chinese village and province accomplishments. Some of Dr. Mania’s articles related to this article include making a great leap forward. The politics of women’s liberation in Maoist China and Marxist materialism, memory, and the mobilization of women during the great leap forward. She is currently a principal investigator of a development team of a social education project in Canada.
The Gendered Politics of Woman-work is an article that examines the political campaigns in China. It explores the formation of political parties before and after the founding of the Republic of China. The author specifically focuses on discrimination of women leaders during the period of Great Leap Forward. Manning argues that most leaders abandoned the women and children’s health. They sought to dismantle the organizations of women’s grassroots. This is because women were employed and trained in the party organization grassroots. The party leaders of the Chinese Community and All Women China Women’s Federation decided to implement a Marxist maternalistic conception of gender equality, which created psychological differences (Manning, 2006). The Party organization grass roots operated depending on the revolutionary Maoist ethnic which were expected to struggle equally. During the late 1950s, many rural Chinese women leaders were identified basing on sexual equality interpretations, which was put forth by the local party. Most of the political women leaders were discriminated because of gender inequality in the political campaigns.
The author analyzes the political campaigns problem that created gender inequality in the village of central Henan toward the end of the Great Leap Forward (Manning, 2006). During this period, Zhang was a woman leader. However, people in the village hated Zhang because she forced women to work while they were pregnant. Moreover, her husband murdered another man in the village. He kept insulting people that made the peasant of Henan village to protest outside Zhang’s door. Zhang oppressed and humiliated people in the Hunan village that led to the protest. The author tries to analyze the way Zhang as a woman leader ruled in a dictatorship way. She ruled with no mercy and even criticized women who wanted to get permissions for health issues and relax from hard labor.
The author argues that most women leaders like Zhang neglected the women and children’s health. This is because they were employed and trained under the grassroots party organizations (Manning, 2006). The local party organizations recruited many rural women as leaders and trained them. Some parties such as ACWF and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) sought to execute a Marxist maternalistic conception. This is because they wanted to promote sexual equality that created psychological differences in the human society. Additionally, the author argues on the discursive tensions created by the party organizations due to the founding of the Republic of China. Despite the formation of the ACWF party, the gap between the maternalistic leadership goals and egalitarian practices resulted, which its grassroots widened further.
The author employs secondary method in analyzing her work. She uses research design method to reveal out the way data was collected (McCord 2005). The individuals involved in the interviews were mostly women most of which were the federalist officials and other former village women leaders. The author incorporated literature review of other writers who had already written on the issue of gendered politics. The research was conducted though carrying out constant fieldwork in the Henna and other counties. This gave the author an enormous amount of data that she precisely used in writing her article about political campaigns.
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