Free Custom «Japan» Essay Paper

Free Custom «Japan» Essay Paper
Japan emergence as a strengthen economy has made it an important part of the civilized world. Right after the World War II Japan has made progress in major fields of science and technology and has provided with various intellectual inventions. This has not been easy for them after the war that devastated them and left them with nothing. They started afresh with change in their values, beliefs and more importantly change the practical infrastructure that made possible the current Japan. United States has played its part in strengthening Japan. The cooperation was at its best when USA at first took responsibility to provide Japanese facilities that could make help them rise. The report will look at the issues which helped in the emergence of Japan as strong economy and the role of United States in this rise. The analysis will provide how and why the things which happened were important for both the countries. One of the important features of Japan?s rise was the change in behavior. If we take a look at the two generations of Japan just before and after the World War II we can see the clear contradiction that lies in the approach. The pre war Japanese were more reluctant towards war and aggression and post war Japanese were more aggressive to become freed from the influence of United States. There had been problems in Japan when it came to point to which culture they should work out for. American culture was based on the capitalism emphasizing on the benefits and profits to the companies rather than the employees whereas Japanese chose to move with the culture that was more towards human relationships. The industry relations in Japan are quite obviously different from the Americans. Japan follows certain rules and guidelines that must abide by their social and justice values. The benefits are important in business but they are not based on the unjust desire of pulling out the human obligation for benefits. There have been various problems that arise during the rise of the Japanese industrial rage. The Japanese industrial slogan for the business work is defined as no gain without reform (Schein, 1981). This totally means that Japanese are always reluctant to change when they feel that they are not having the required benefits from a certain strategy. There is difference between Americans and Japanese styles of dealing with business matters. The industrial management decisions also differ in quite a bit. The business style of Japanese becomes quite clear when we look at the Sogo Shosha. It is the group of seven large companies which have many offices in different parts of the world and general business is trading. The experienced staff in these companies plays a major role in business model of Japan as they account for good level of trading for the Japan?s export. These companies have their own businesses but they are also provides other business opportunity for most of the companies who don?t have the ability to export their products. These companies provide platform to the smaller companies who don?t have a budgets to pay for the licenses and taxes of export so they use these companies for their supply chain process. These things help the business grow in collective manner and minimize the cost factor to much extant. This business model is not implemented in United States for many reasons. The reasons are quite obvious that is differences in organizational motives, competitions between organizations, personal values and beliefs which are quite different in both countries (Schein, 1981).
The impact of United States on the Japanese economy is more than it is thought. Right from the start United States gave ample opportunities to the Japan to reform and gain. Though the results are far more than what was expected, United States welcomed these reforms that resulted in much greater economy. Japan has impacted more on personal lives rather than goals of business. It is quite true that employees are more respected and valued by an organization in Japan rather than in United States. That is why the relation between employee and employer is based on respect. The strategic question that arises what was the role that United States played in the growth of Japan for many of these years. United States is considered as a close ally of Japan and it must have played a major role in defining and designing organizational structures in Japan when it all started after the Second World War. American influence was more like a political or militarily one. The reason for this was the Japanese placement was precisely very important for United States because Soviets and Chinese were there in the neighborhood and this gave them the opportunity to keep a close eye on their enemies. Also to keep a strong mark on the Soviets, a good Japanese economy of the American benefits was very important. Thus United Stated started to influence the business and trade policies with Japan. Japan had various implications and sanctions in the start for doing business with outside world because they were under control of United States under various treaties (Maher, 1994). This led them to work for themselves for a longer period of time where they started to realize business terms, developed personal values and goals, learnt the organizational theory in the international context and implemented in their traditional context because they always valued their own culture and traditions rather than the foreign. This helped in making good business relations. The good business relations means that both companies and employees right from the start had the same objective to gain keeping the life simple for the employees. When this kind of relationship started to prosper between the industry and workers the environment became much smoother and healthier for the Japan itself. The rise of Japan was much more than just the emergence of the Japanese people who were down and out. There are many countries who have opportunities much more than Japan and same for natural and other resources then why did Japan went so big in such a short period to become second biggest economy. Even United States was shocked at the results because no one was expecting this nation to stand up. There were some instances that stopped the Japanese to move forward. Japan firstly emphasized on their capabilities of producing. When they completed demands of their people they started to export but United States hindered these processes for some years to set up its monopoly. This led to the harshness in relationship for some years. Then the exports took place and Japan took the world with boom because of the products they exported which included Televisions. Both countries have expectations from each other on the regards of business and trade. The reason is because that the world is now working on the economical models and no more militarily and strong relations between two largest economies somehow impact both these countries and the world consequently.
There are various companies of Japan that are have offices and manufacturing plants in most of the organizations. This also helps in understanding the business cultures and models between the organizations and countries. 1971 was a year that fluctuated in both of the country?s economic and political aspects. The country was greatly influenced by the recession in US and the ties between two countries got severed when the US foreign policy was shifted from Japan to China as President Nixon visited China without consultation with Japan. This led to the change in the atmosphere in the Japanese ranks and they started to question the US honesty towards the Japanese benefits. Also a surcharge was implemented on the Japanese increasing exports to the US. This was the fact that Japan was creating a better impression on US and the other world but considerably lacked in the power that it could use to dictate terms in the economical world (Ikegami, 2005). Though the both countries were starting to get close with each other in all the terms there were always conflicts arising between them. Japan was a rising economy and direct threat to the US interests in most parts of the country including US as well. Japan was starting to export the products that helped based on the exclusive research in the field of science and technology. US limited the Japanese exports through Orderly Marketing Arrangements that made the events to be based on events. This made US to control the exports of Japan to United States as the way they wanted them to be to see if they are placing any problems on the current market structure in US and cannot allow to make any political problems. This was definitely see when US allowed the export of Televisions to take place from Japan according to the Orderly Marketing Arrangements confidence agreement and provided Japan to think of its relations with US with better understanding of its own role in this so long relationship. At the same time US also sanctioned Japan to limit its imports on certain things. Japan was not allowed to import nuclear fuel related things that could be critical in the formation of the atomic bomb with some agricultural products like beef and orange (Christopher, 1983). Steel was another product which Japan was not allowed to export. This was truly the differentiation in the political agendas which both countries had for the other. Japan was trying to do fair business but US because of the power and upper hand it had got was always displacing the things (Ikegami, 2005). But on the better perspectives it could be seen that these events somehow helped Japanese to take action in a much better way. The coping of the political conflicts became much more important in the late 1970s. Coming back to the organizational model that is implemented in Japan, various interesting points comes to reality. Sullivan & Nonaka (1986) studied the Japanese work place experiences and designed an organizational model that is based on equality in workplace and task orientations. The organizational model provides equal opportunities for any member no matter how much skilled he is. The important thing is that the work in managed in groups rather different from United States where the individual tasks are provisioned much more than the grouped. There are no personal goals in Japan rather there are team goals. The individual psychic interpretation has minimized the status difference in an industry for the Japanese people. The work in the industry is done on the mutual understanding and mutual orientation towards results. The employees have no layoffs in Japan whereas there are many layoffs in Americans. The American counterparts are very specialized in personal growth and their rights but the Japanese just work without worrying about their rights (Burton, 1989). Thus the main difference that seems to be between the two cultures is choosing of the long and short term goals. Another difference that is present between the two countries is the decision making powers. Japan has initiated a culture that works in a combined fashion. Decision making is done in groups as well. The industry relations therefore are very strong because no one feels any difference in working conditions. The other things that are important are the relationship between the companies. The companies have started to work in close conjunction with each other. The Sogo Shosha is an example of these relations which states that the Japanese are more reluctant for results for their economy rather than for the individual organizations. It is also learnt that different management styles account for different proportions of the success in results. This is quite clear from the more positive approach from the Japanese industries. Even when the Japanese companies open up a foreign office of manufacturing plants they follow the same management capabilities and structures which they follow in their own country. This really means that they believe in their system and think that this is their way of success. Researchers have found out that the results that are provided by the Japanese management style are due to the characteristics including lifetime employment opportunity, career paths, evaluation, collective decision making, working in groups, common goals and implicit control mechanism. The government also plays an important role in defining the relationship between the organizations, labor unions and the foreign companies. It seems that everyone feels himself responsible for the success of the organization. This is quite clear from the results that are obtained from the working conditions. The theoretical analysis of the cultural aspects of the organizations states that the strong traditions of a country can show up their image in the organizational culture as well. For this reason the Americans have fallen behind the line because they are not that much strong in their personal and cultural values as compared to the Japanese. The Japan and United States have various issues between them but they have somehow made important progress on the whole political and managerial aspects. Though Japan has followed different organizational culture and strategy they however, followed the same plans that were of the United States in terms of the international policy. The international policy was largely based on the monetary benefits due to the organizations going global but the things after that change because Japan has not followed its own culture rather than the American. The important derive that shapes the Japanese business is the flexibility and orientation but that of Americans in based on innovations and aggressiveness (Maher, 1994). American companies always try to adhere to cultural policies. Their culture provides them the stability that they can use to satisfy customers at any country with any culture. This is the reason why the American companies are so successful in many parts of the world.
The difference between Japan and America is that the Japanese companies are not much motivated by the business and the capturing impacts over the world. They are more thoughtful in their business approach in getting the customers satisfied. This is the reason they work more than any other in the world and have fewer holidays than any other country. The emergence of Japan to become the world second largest economy is considered as miracles. The up rise of the Japan seems very imaginative to believe that how come people can become so much motivated and inspirational that they can become that much influential they can change the world. The rise of Japan as an economic power is still considered as a daunting task which was achieved by some level of success. There is no example available for us that could help us determine the difference. This rise hasn?t been that simple. There was a whole shift of values and beliefs where people got together to fight their great enemy i.e. themselves. The undeniable acts of the Japanese they were always known for compelling them to bow down against their enemies. The today?s fact when critically analyzed state that rises of Japan was based on the motivation that was created by their leaders. The leaders wanted their country to be changed and the change they brought. The people were working for a difference rather than money. Japan today makes up only 2.6% of the world?s population but still produces 10% of world?s economic production. With United States they are the world biggest creditors (Jansen, 2000). Tokyo Stock Exchange is the biggest stock exchange in the world which equals total size of New York, London, Frankfurt, Paris and Toronto when added together. Even still they have very strong domestic economies which limit their dependence on other countries including US and UK. Japan has a greater trade surpluses, personal incomes and market share of products sold better than any other country in the world including US. The rise hasn?t been achieved by mere sleeping. The facts show that the Japan has the lowest number of the holidays in a year than any other country which is just 9 as compared to Germany which has 29. The Japanese people work around 200 to 500 more hours than employees in any other country (Henshall, 2001). This can be easily stated by the fact that Ford has two third more employees than Toyota but it still produces one half of the cars. The salary differences between the high management and the lower staff are just 7% which rises up to 30% in USA (Henshall, 2001). Japan currently has the greatest GNP in the world. The statistics depict that rise of Japan in so less time is just a miracle. The world where various countries have been working for many years and have become stabilized has to see another country standing from ashes of the Second World War and had nothing to do. The country which is accounted for most of the wars in the past in history of world changed the history with the strength of character and determination and with the help of motivation given to them by their leaders. This is how the miraculous Japan saw a rise. The role of US remains an important one right from the start when Japan had virtually no economy because of the defeat in the war and has to give the control to the USA. From those disgracing days to these days, the history tries to tell use the difference between the approaches a person can make when his survival is based on the respect.


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