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The nature of the European ascendancy of the long nineteenth century between 1789 and 1914 was complex. The history of the ascendency led to civilization, regional, national, and global effects. The ascendency led to the beginning of the modern world. The development and rise of religions, political formations, economic life, and political ideologies was the result.
The ascendency led to interconnections that arose from the development of different links that were caused by antagonisms and heightened differences between the different societies in the Europe. The ascendency was driven by the control and lead that was exerted by the North America and Europe over others in the world. This led to the adoption of the western technologies and ideas by others. They did this by in cooperating their own traditional ways to westerners by developing for new purposes.
The world regime before was governed by agrarian empires. The years were marked by domestication of others and the emergence of war throughout the world. There were wars in Europe that led to French and American revolutions. This resulted to climacteric years of war from 1793 to about 1815.
After the period of the wars, there was the rise of aristocracies, priests, and monarchs. This took place until other notable rebellions started, leading to revolutions in Europe in 1848. Many people lost their lives in the process. For example, in the Taiping rebellion that was in China where over 20 million people lost their lives and civil war of the United States in 1860’s. The wars and rebellions were global events, hence; they caused repercussions in the world.
During this period is when politicians learnt how, to hitch financial and industrial resources, to the state power. The democratic and national sentiments were brewed at this period. The American war, for example, is what led to the affirmation of the United States current democracy. The imperialism period also provided many European states to expand. The power to expand to the rest of the world led to scientific and organizational capacities. The European religion and ideas were used in this same purpose. However, they faced a lot of conflicts, and some were incoherent with the terms of reference.
There was competition among the religious groups that was brought by the Christian evangelicalism. This made leaders start centralization and codification. The period of European ascendency led to many changes that made resistances to nomadic populations. This was against the settler populations. As a result, violence was always in the air during the nineteenth century.
The change and continuity were fundamental in wealth revolution. Much beef imports and wheat from the new world led to the creation of wealth in Europe. Industries were created as a result of this and the western powers intervened in the empires that were there. This made United States, German, and Japan to emerge as new global powers. Communication was developed globally, and conferences were also organized to make the nationalist forces presence to be felt.
The global effect was significant, and the religious and ethnic revivalism faced confrontations. This was from the masses that were loyal. This made the linkages and networks that were developed before not help European powers not to go to war. The globalization was brought by the growth of the modern states. This was from their pursuit for markets that prompted imitation, and incorporation. However, at the same time, there was also contestation of the preservation of the inherited polities, interests, and religions.
The growing international connections and rise of Western dominance led to the globalization of the world. Moreover, the western powers ability to kill led to this globalization. This has made it possible as, the denser global interactions, has made the future predictable.
The epithet Dark Continent is an apt one for summarizing the European twentieth century. The eighteenth century is the basis of this history. The religious or political persuasions at that time threatened to plunge the nation into a degeneration war. The race that was constructed by the Europeans was the reason for this.
The race construction in Europe is a complex situation. The early travelers to this region saw the variety of language, color, clothing, diet, and customs as a way of making a difference. These differences did not in any way make a value ranking or judgment on the ethnic or racial identities. These differences are what led to slavery and colonization.
The World War I and II took place in Europe as a result of dominance struggle. The World War II was from the World War I reeling of Germany defeat. The ruler by then Hitler wanted a new empire in Eastern Europe. To make German dominant, a war was envisioned by the leaders as a requirement. Germany started the World War II by invading Poland. The result was a response from France and Britain to declare war on Germany. This found China and Japan already in war, and US also joined the war.
The World War I is the known First World War. It was a war fought between nations. It lasted for four years. The war was between two sides and hammered a block between them. This continued even in the Second World War that in a way resembled the First World War. The opposing sides in the wars were Central powers. They fought against the Allied Powers. The central powers included Germany, while the allied powers included England, which allied itself to Italy, France, Russia, and Belgium. Later the United States joined the group.
The war was mostly fought with trench combat. The Austria-Hungary was the one who concluded the First World War. Germany fought in the trenches in Europe against France, England, Russia, Belgium, Italy, and United States later. New nations were developed as a result of the war. They included; Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Latvia, Poland, Finland, and Czechoslovakia.
The negative outcomes of fascism, racism, and nationalism are many. Nationalism as a parochialism and rampant bigotry involves vilifying anything that is foreign. Nationalism describes negative concepts like racial conflicts, bigotry, and racism. The population behaves in unquestionable manner and is frenzied in doing so. This leads to intolerance and bigotry, hence, ethnic conflicts, racism and isolation. In addition, fascism is experienced, which leads to exploitation of the people by those in authority. Moreover, false enemies are created by simplistic thinking that involves using propaganda to control the population.
The European ideologies for revolution led, to many deaths. Hitler and Stalin are an example of how the ideologies they had led to many deaths. Both had ideologies that were evil. They believed in communist that led to a stigma during the Nazism. Stalinism that was experienced in Soviet Union is somehow different to Nazi Germany and fascism, but, it also led to many deaths. Ideologies such as social Darwinism led to many deaths in Europe. The theory for the sturdy to survive and the scrawny to fail and die still haunts Europe in the epithet Dark Continent.
Communism had noble intentions but ended up with negative outcomes on the people. The system envisioned a perfect world that was going to make people equal. The class struggles were to be finished. The economic and political systems were all to be transformed by the communist system. The system worked temporarily by bringing prosperity; however, other leaders let it to periods of drudgery. The system led to fascism and political uprisings thereafter.
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