An electoral system specifies a form of ballot, allowable votes, and the method of tallying. Coming up with an algorithm to determine the outcome is the final task to be done. The result may be a single victor or may entail numerous winners such as in the ballot vote for a legislative body. The voting structure may as well detail how voters attain voting authority and its distribution among them, as well as its division into subgroups, whose votes usually can be tallied separately.
Different countries use different methods of voting system. Main focus in this paper will be the focus on some of the main voting systems used in voting. Some countries have adopted the proportional representation voting method, for example Germany. Proportional methods guarantee proportionality in voting through giving every winning opportunity approximately the same number of votes. The number in this case can be referred to as a quota. [Paragraph 1]
Some countries use the ranking method - this method involves ranking of the candidates in terms of preference by the voters. Australia, for example, uses various forms of preferential voting method. Voters rank the candidates in the voting system in terms of preference. In 1918, Australia introduced the preferential voting. This was in response to the Country Party rise, a party representing small farmers. [Paragraph 2]
Since 1980, preferential voting system has had mixed results in Australia. This is because this voting system has had a reverse effect in Australian politics. For instance, since 1980 the coalition party has only won five sits in 11 elections. On the other hand, labor coalition trailed the combined coalition with 61 votes on first preferences. [Paragraph 2]
However, preferential voting, particularly obligatory preferential voting in Australia makes sense only where there are two prevailing parties in every voter, in the country. If the main party votes declines, obligatory preferential voting can generate entirely unsatisfactory results. Discretionary preferential voting system offers better weight compared to 'first favorite', voting system. However, if a two-party structure crumbles into a multi-party structure, the reasonable resolution is proportional version of voting. This voting method has significantly led to development in Australia’s democracy. [Paragraph 2
Changeability and development are the constant features of the election field. This is because many electoral bodies try as hard as possible to conduct free and fair elections. Technology has proved to be useful in elections as many countries have embraced electronic voting. This is due to its efficiency and accuracy. Free and fair voting are the main characters that define democracy.
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