The term terrorism describes a situation, where an individual or a group of individuals employ violence or threaten the use of violence to bring about a certain desired result (Townshend, 2002). Terrorism according to policy makers and lawmakers is considered to be a very difficult issue since it is thought to be very unjust, evil, and also irrational violence which in most cases should be suppressed. Terrorism is therefore defined as a violence which is politically motivated and perpetrated against targets which are noncombatant by the clandestine agents.
The prevention of terrorist acts committed by adherents of radical Islamism is a major policy objective today. The United States has been reported as being the hottest target for terrorist acts and has come up with many policies and measures to help in fighting terrorism in the world (Clarke and Newman, 2006). The U.S has reportedly restrained governments who support such activities like international terrorism from receiving military assistance and also economic assistance from the country. The U.S has also put in measures to ensure that countries that export commodities which can be used for terrorist acts are restricted and are banished from trading with other countries all over the world (Enders and Sandler, 2006).
Radical Islamism involvement in most cases is assumed to be a form of severe terrorism. These radical Islamists think that practices and activities like the “Jihad” which actually means “to strive or to struggle” as a way of Allah and this “holy war” is greatly extended through the Islamic community through activities like preaching and teaching. This “holy war” is not actually intended to indulge in aggressive behavior and warfare. There are two known types of jihad; the greater jihad and the lesser jihad. The greater jihad is the spiritual struggle in which many Islamists in the world engage in throughout most of their lives. The lesser jihad on the other hand is usually against the polytheists and should only be used in the self-defense of an individual or a nation since it involves armed struggle.
Many Radical Islamists consider jihad as an Islamic duty which is in the form of a military aggression. A good example is the case for Osama Bin Laden whose main goals were to put off the U.S Army away from Arabian Penisula, to be able to liberate all the Islam’s holy sites like Medina and Mecca, and also to be able to overthrow the government of Saudi. The U.S anti terrorism policies of between the years 1970s-1990s, was mainly focused on the punishment of the state sponsors to these groups of terrorists. Immediately after the twin towers bombing in the United States in September the 11th, the U.S antiterrorism policies had to put in more efforts so that the economy of the country is not affected due to the failures in the international markets which are caused by these terrorist acts.
With the radical changes in technology, most terrorists have changed to the use of technology like the internet to carry out their terrorists attacks. This is called cyber terrorism the technology of computer networking has led to the boundaries that exist between cybercrime, cyber ware fare and cyber terrorism, being blurred. This owes to the availability of cyber-attack services for hire. the internet has given people the capability of shaping the slant of the coverage of the traditional media, since most use the internet, as a major source of information. As a result, people find it easier to communicate their views to traditional media through the internet. These features that are present in the internet make it easier for people to carry out criminal activity, including cyber activity.
The distinctions that exist between terrorism, war and crime, often blur, when they are considered in a computer network attack context. This blur in boundaries makes measuring cyber attack trends a challenge that is complex (Forest, 2006). One of the things that can help in developing an appropriate measure for trends is having exact knowledge of what the end result is defined as. Cyber terrorism is described in two frameworks: one of them, being effect-based, and the other, being intent-based.
Within the context of effects, cyber terrorism is said to exist, when the attack that has been launched on the computer results in effects that are disruptive, such that they generate fear that is similar or comparable to what is often witnessed with traditional terrorism (Forest, 2006). The intent-based context describes cyber terrorism, as an act of cyber attack that is perpetrated, is done so, with the intent of coercing some form of political view or leading to a severe economic injury to a nation or nations. It is important to note, that information is the constant in cyber terrorism and the internet is the major medium through which people deliver cyber terrorism.
We can be able to defend ourselves from these terrorist acts without abridging the civil rights and liberties of American and immigrant Muslims. The United States has been considered to be a land of great opportunity by many immigrants in the country and this has led to the increase in the number of immigrants moving to live in the United States. Some of these immigrants moving to the United States are Muslims and the Arabs. Discrimination against them is very high in most of the States and this can explain the reason as to why so many attacks are targeted towards the United States unlike in other countries around the globe.
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It is said that, all Muslims and Arabs are terrorists. This is based on the fact that historically, Arabic countries have also being leaked with incessant wars and conflicts, either domestically or foreign with other nations. Some Arabic nations in the Middle East and particularly Iraq, has in the recent past being suspected to be a major architect of weapons of mass destruction. These assumptions have affected both the victims and accusers negatively.
To begin with, this immigration has led to the massive discrimination of the Muslim and Arabs all over the world. In fact, they are labeled ‘the insecure icons of threat who can even risk their own lives to interfere with the tranquility of the world.’ This is unfair labeling since, not all Muslims and Arabs are bad (Kepel and tr. Pascale, 2004). Nobody is born badly, and nobody has the ability to determine where he or she should be born. Judging people on the basis of misdeeds of others is inhuman. Secondly, it affects how the Muslim and Arabs respond to the rest of the world. By being labeled, they tend to be harsh and hostile in response to how they are treated. Lastly, it affects how the economic relationship, that could exist between these countries and the rest of the world. Due to discrimination, many countries fear becoming trade partners with the Arab countries in fear that it would tarnish their reputation in the eyes of other countries.
The governments of all the nations should put in measures and policies to ensure that all the immigrants are treated equal like any other citizens in the country. Stereotyping is a major cause of terrorism acts and should be avoided as much as possible since when people are discriminated against, they tend to loose their self esteem and this can make them to behave or to involve themselves in criminal activities like terrorism so as to be able to punish all those that are not for their well being and in so doing, they end up hurting innocent people and citizens who are not even aware of what is going on (Forest, 2006).
We can be able to stop these terrorist acts by speaking out and reporting suspicious terrorist acts that we may think they may end up in a terrorist attack. In so doing, we should be able to look and assess a person by the looks, dressing code, disability, body posture, etc. If we are very cautious of the people around us and the people we interact with in our daily activities, we can be able to tell if the people we interact with are mysterious people, good people or even terrorists. If we report all the suspicious people or cars we see or observe to the police, this shows that we would be helping the police to be able to get to these terrorists since most of them always appear peculiar (Clarke and Newman, 2006).
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In conclusion, Terrorism has become a global phenomenon which has caused a lot of challenges and problems to many law makers and policy makers because of these activities which are mostly led by the radical Islamists and has led to the broadening of the extremist views in most of the target populations where if the problem is not addressed in advance will lead to many Islamism youths embracing these extremist views which in most cases can lead an increase in the number of terrorist attacks and acts.