Political parties can have both independent and dependent variables in the political system. Parties influence the public policy and nature and are also shaped by socio-political variables in the political environment.
1. Four different sets of variables important in shaping the political party strength and organization include;
- Interaction of the party with the people
- The party’s ideology. This implies on the conservative or liberal positions taken a political party.
- The competitiveness of the party; this is how a party publicizes itself by getting down to the people and maintaining closeness among the party leaders.
- The period of time, a party has been in existence; most people trust a party that has been in existence for a long time. Old parties also tend to have a large following compared to new upcoming parties whose policies and manifestoes are yet to be clearly understood. However, this is not always true as new political parties have been seen to remove from power historically strong parties.
- In the United States of America, there are two political parties, the republicans, and the democrats. This voting system is candidate centered not party centered. In the split-voter phenomena, voters have to decide between the presidential candidate of one party and the senator or representative of another party. In addition, some districts register more votes for one party’s candidate but simultaneously give their support to another party’s candidate for senate or house. Region specific realignment, popular incumbent, a less competitive challenger contribute to the overall split outcome (Bardes, Shelley & Schmidt 2011).
c) The 2008 elections had the two political parties make a concerted effort to appeal to religious voters, the African American voters and women. These factors were a major predictor of the 2008 vote results. The Obama led democrats made concerted efforts to reach out to millions of voters in hope of narrowing the wide gap with the Republicans. In the previous elections, more church goers voted republican. However, because of the new face of hope that was displayed by Obama, they voted for the Democratic Party by a huge margin. The African American voted democratic unlike in previous elections where a majority of them were republicans. This is because of the strong racial connection they had with the democrat candidate. These elections saw to it that even the old republican dominated states went democratic. The women votes increased because in the recent elections a majority of women were not voting. The tight competition between McCain and Obama led to the involvement of more female voters in the elections.
2. According to James Madison, in a free society, clashes are certain to occur when people pursue selfish goals among competing interests. These will in turn result in policies, which serve the common good.
a) Many scholars and politicians argue that free competition on competing interests is the ultimate solution to promote the common good for all. However, this may not always be true as it may lead to neglecting of minority groups interests or create highly advantaged people relegating others into access to the basic goods, services, and rights.
b) Politically, free competition is available in the United States today. It is evident whereby only a financialy strong candidate has the potential to get endorsement at the political party level. The legal electoral process as designed by law has its own challenges, which promote fair candidacy; which is not always fair to all.
c) I would seek for scientific evidence by collecting data randomly from interest groups and assessing their views regarding the system not the candidates. The data collected will ten be analyzed to draw conclusions regarding the nature of competition in the US. I would also project the outcome if a different method was to be applied.
I rated as a hard pressed democrat along with thirteen percent of the public. According to the results, I compared with the rest of the nation on a few aspects such as the belief that the government is often wasteful and inefficient; corporate make too much net profits; the country should help black people more and the government should help the needy. According to the assessors, democrats are cynical about the government, criticize businesses, and strongly support the increase on social safety nets. They are also pessimists with regards to their future finances. In my opinion, the chosen answers are the best approaches to realize an equitable system of governance whereby everyone concerns are in the least addressed. I do not agree on the pessimistic views they use to classify a democrat from a republican. I regard myself as an independent voter. My responses are on a humanitarian basis considering that a majority of the people living in America are not satisfied with the governments’ activity or their day to day socio political lives. If that is the case, half of the population must be democrats.
b) The democratic vision is to give all people living In America a chance to live out their dreams and achieve their potential. It is bent towards renewing America’s most basic bargain of affording an opportunity to every American.
Of interest is the now infamous health care plan. The government pushed for the health care bill, which was to realize affordable health care for all; true to the democrat’s spirit. Anyone can now buy government subsidized coverage and employers are levied fines if they fail to cover their employees. However, the new health care plan ensured that many people who wished to maintain their old health care plans would not do it.
Republicans advocate for free market, individual achievement, and economic prosperity. They favor the conservative and laissez faire economic system. They also stand for personal responsibility and effort over welfare programs. They were the pioneers of environmental conservation in American politics. Of surprising interest is the favoring of the supply side economics (reaganomics theory). This implies the reduction of income taxes to increase overall GDP growth and hence generate more revenue for the government. Most republicans also agree on the need for safety nets. They advocate for its regulation to a few cases to ensure that it is not abused.
c) A current policy issue that I would wish to see addressed across the typology groups is security. This should include an analysis on the allocation of state resources to address internal security.
B) To increase the number of votes, political parties should adopt the cumulative voting system. This will help to increase voter turn out and representation of minority communities. Proportional representation may require constitutional change, this wiill enhance fair representation and address the unfairness of the winner takes it all method which discourages voters from minor parties from voting.
- Both republican and democrats have near similar aims and forms. There are however different in some very important ways such as policy ideals, mode of internal politics and generally the nations political culture and beliefs. The sets of beliefs, sentiments, and attitudes give order to political process and govern behavior in the political system. There are fundamental differences between democrats and republicans one of which is structural. In the Republican Party power flows downward while in the Democratic Party power flows upward. The other difference is attitudinal whereby republicans regard themselves as insiders even if they are out of power while democrats regard themselves as outsiders even when it is they in power (Kollman 2011).
- Republicans feel that socio-economic problems of the poor people and minority communities’ can be addressed by improving the economy. The democrats also believe in improving the economy but also availing welfare and capacity development to needy people and minority communities.
- If both the democrats and the republicans are trying to attract a majority support it is, obvious that one party would get some overlap in the coalitions. There are many similarities and differences between the two parties; these differences might not allow an overlap to occur unless the similarities are the main points of focus, which is unlikely in a political environment.
- C. The health policy issue is of great concern to different stakeholders. It is designed to afford all Americans affordable health care. In this act all medi-care expenses will be automatically be paid for by the government. I find it to be of importance because it will help narrow down the rich-poor gap existing when addressing health issues. I have seen people close to me surfer from terminal illnesses and lose a lot of property to cure long term illnesses.
- 1. Policy advocacy are described in terms of addressing problems. Medicare and Medicaid is still a challenge in the US. Most people can not afford quality health care because of their economic disposal, racial discrimination, and inequitable distribution of resources by the government to address health care demands. The new health policy will help address some of these challenges by giving health insurance to all citizens.
- The health care bill was signed into law by president Obama. The republicans opposed the move saying that it was unconstitutional. More than ten state attorneys allied to the Republican Party filed suits to block the bill. The bill has many issues of concern clear to both the democrats and the republicans. However, democrats needed to achieve a political goal rather than getting something done.
- According to the Pew Research center report, the likelihood of getting support from an issue is certain to fall on the political sentiments. The democrats are likely to support me although I feel that the republicans are genuine in their outcries. The health care bill might address the health needs but it will be very expensive.