The historical heritage was the main cause of the troublesome issues between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Judea; the legitimate home for the Jews was taken by the Romans who later named it as Palestine. After thousands of years the Arabs conquered and inhabited Palestine. The movement which was called Zionist began with the aim of restoring the Jews to there original homeland. The Zionist movement did not consider that the Arabs were staying in the land during those times. Balfour Declaration was enacted in 1917 demanding the Palestinians to construct a home for the Israelis. The Arabs did not agree with the terms of the declaration because they were not ready to leave the land which they had inhabited at that time for the Jews. The Arabs repeatedly rioted and they later revolted; this was the beginning of the underlying conflict and enmity between the Palestinian Arabs and the Israel Jewish.
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When the Arabs revolted Britain was forced to terminate the Jewish immigration to their home land. The Holocaust which led to the death of six million Jews forced Britain to allow Jewish immigration back to Palestine. The United Nations can in to resolve the existing conflict and partitioned the land between the Arabs and the Jews but the Palestinians did not agree with this move. Because of the partition of the land war broke between the two nations. The war did not go well with the Arabs because the Jewish people won and as a result they greatly expanded their homeland creating many thousands of Palestinian Arab refugees whom they displaced. Despite of the Jewish victory the Palestinians failed to recognize Israel as a state and as a result they also refused to make peace with them. That was the main cause of the subsequent wars between the two besides the excessive terror raids. Each group has there own version of the same and that is the reason this conflict is still on until today (Catignani, 2005).
First and second intifada in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict
The Palestinian rebellion against the habitation of their territories by the Jews marked the first Intifada. The rebellion was started in the Jabalia refugee camp but it spread at a faster rate to the surrounding areas which included east Jerusalem, west Bank and Gaza. This action took place between 1987 and 1993. The Palestinians used resistance movements, nonviolent civil disobedience as well as violent actions. There were numerous general strikes, refusal to pay tributes, barricades, taxes and boycotts of the products which were being produced by the Jews. The Palestinians conducted many stone throwing demonstrations; whereby the youths threw stones at the Israel Defense Force. The Palestinians were violent to both the Jewish soldiers as well as the Jewish civilians.
Another common feature in the first Intifada was the Intra-Palestinian violence which led to numerous executions of the people who were accused to be collaborators of the Jewish people. The first Intifada resulted to the death of about 1,100 Palestinians as well as 164 Jews besides that about a thousand Palestinians lost their lives on the allegations that they were collaborating with the Israeli people. The habitation of the Gaza strip and the West Bank by the Jews was a great frustration to the Palestinians. Besides that the Israel government of the time went a head and launched the Iron Fist policy in 1985. This policy was accompanied by the increased settler activity besides economic integration. The move by the Israeli provoked the Palestinians into increased military deportation. The first Intifada started when a Jews army tanker ran into a Palestinian mob.
The second Palestinian rebellion was termed as the second Intifada. The activity is characterized by intensive Palestinian/Israel violence. The second Intifada started in September 2000; this Intifada is also referred to as Al-Aqsa after a prominent and famous Muslim Mosque which was constructed at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The Jewish and the Palestinians consider Jerusalem to be a holy city. The second Intifada was very intense and it left about 6000 and 1000 Palestinians and Jews respectively death. Besides that about 64 foreigners lost their lives. The historic event began when a Palestinian patrol soldiers turned against his Jewish counterpart and killed him. There are main controversies about the initial activity that led to the second Intifada but majority think that the visit to the Temple Mount by Sharon was the main cause of the riot that broke out (Catignani, 2005).
Comparison of the First and second Intifada in the Israel-Palestinian conflict
The Palestinians followed the path of the Algerian war. They wedged their war with great sympathy as well as regard for the underlying success because of its own liberation restrains. This can be clearly seen from the efforts of Arafats in initiating the guerrilla complain in the Jewish newly inhabited areas. The campaigns and the riots followed the Algeria war experience. When the Palestinians faced great hardship they resolved to make great sacrifices as the ones which had been made by Algeria that led them to acquire independence. Algeria war created a discourse with Israel military and politics after the initiation of the First Intifada. The Jewish soldiers applied harsh measures in attempt of stopping the Palestinians rebellion. The methods which were deployed by the French Army during the Algeria were a clear indication of the outcome of such measures. During the first Intifada the film the Battle of Algiers was aired in Israel for the first time with the intention of making them realize how they were treating the Palestinians.
That was the same time when the Alistair Horne’s book was translated and published in Hebrew. The Oslo agreement which put a lot of emphasis on evacuation of Jewish settlers continued to be cited as a standard example. The Israeli settlers did not agree with the comparison which are being made in relation to Algeria because the west bank and Israel are territorially adjacent, and besides that the Israeli people have a biblical backup over there possession of the territory. The Gaza Disengagement debate was greatly criticized following the decision of Sharon who wanted each Israeli settler to be evacuated by force.
Expers preferred the De Gaulle method whereby the decision of returning to their native land was solely in the hands of the Israeli settlers without implementing any forcefully measures; though this method was not accepted by the government of Sharon. Some of the tactics which were employed by the Israeli during the Intifada include deployment of checkpoints, development of security fence, targeted assassination, house demolition, targeted raids as well as collective punishment. The second intifada was as a result of public outrage though the first intifada was greatly supported by the public till its end. On the other hand the general public supported the second intifada for the first two months alone after which the battle remained between the IDF and several groups of the Palestinian security services. The civil uprising changed the whole situation to terror campaign and guerilla war (Catignani, 2005).
The Israeli Defense Force responded to the intifada the usual way that it has reacted against any other attackers in attempt of stopping them. The IDF initially used inappropriate force in attempt to stop the protest by using small fire arms. Statistics reveals that in the first attempt the Israeli Defense Force used approximately 5.56 caliber bullets which were more than a million but as the fight intensified they changed there tactics and that was after the election of Sharon as the prime minister. The new minister came with new tactics which were aimed at achieving four objectives which included ending Palestinian violence, securing Jewish citizens, stopping Palestinians from meeting their objectives through violence as well as paving way for negotiations. The massacre that broke out on the 2002 Passover made the IDF to employ more tough measures. They first deployed operation defensive shield along its territories for a period of two years.
This was aimed at dismantling any terror infrastructures besides that they confiscated weapons from Palestinians. On addition to that they occupied the cities which were inhabited by the terrorists as an attempt to neutralize the suicidal bombers. The new defensive strategy has two essential elements which included withdrawal from the territories which they occupied as a way of reducing the Palestinian hatred. The other option was to build a security fence in order to remove the border between the west bank and Israel. By 2003 Sharon and his team had already realized that the new employed strategies were not of great benefits because they were not yielding the required outcome therefore, they sort for other alternatives. The strategies which they have always employed as there defense mechanism are characterized by three aspects which include early warning, deterrence and emerging winners in a decisive battle.
The conflict environment on the basis of Galula’s principles
War strategies that involve spatial arrangements have been in operation since the ancient times. The Israeli government is well known for the much information which it discloses about its security activities. Some of the organizations which are allowed to gain access to this important information include the media, peace advocates as well as human rights. Some of the information which they usually disclose includes torture which is subjected to the suspected terrorists as well as coercive interrogations. Occupied Israel terrorists are treated on the basis of the martial law. At the end of the 1967 war, Gaza and West Bank was occupied by about a million Palestinians and that is the reason it’s referred to as Israeli occupied terrorists. Because this region was occupied by the Palestinians the Israeli government decided to impose military and civil administration in the region which controlled acquisition of permits, identity cards (Kaplan, 2006).
Besides that the civil and military administration constructed firms which were meant to control water supply, telephone systems, electricity grid, military bases, checkpoints and sealed borders beside others. Palestinians benefitted from these stringent measures though it was at the expense of its dignity, freedom and human rights. At the end of 1987 the Palestinians decided to rebel through demonstrations, using of firebombs against the Jewish soldiers. They also threw stones, put roadblocks besides rioting. As a result the Israeli military decided to deploy thousands of its soldiers in order to disperse the demonstrating and rioting crowds. The soldiers were supposed to protect the Jewish who had settled in the region, break strikes, enforce curfews and end the revolt. The results of this move was formidable because at the end of a period of three years seven hundred and fifty Palestinians had been killed, 13000 wounded and about three hundred and fifty Palestinian homes demolished. Besides that forty thousands Palestinians were under detention and about sixty thousands under arrest. The number of Israeli soldiers and civilian who had been killed by the Palestinians was only twenty six.
At the moment the Israeli Defense Force had been assigned to fight the Palestinian armies using airstrikes and artillery tankers. Despite there initial assignment the IDF resolved to massive arrests, military courts trials as well as coercive interrogations because it was very difficult to identify the Palestinians who were being looked for. The Israeli soldiers employed tough strategies which were aimed at making the arrested people talk. For instance they were subjected to hooding, sleep deprivation, kicking and beating besides long hours of standing. Other strategies which were used by the soldiers include violent shaking, psychological abuse as well as threats; these strategies were very abusive and offensive to human rights (Kaplan, 2006).
Conviction usually took place after confession by the detainee. For instance those who confessed to be members of organizations which were termed as illegal were convicted. The Palestinian illegal organizations always looked for the opportunity to attack Israeli civilians besides there soldiers. 3.2% of the arrested eighty four thousand Palestinians were declared innocent in the courts. The Israeli were able to know the adversaries which could have befallen them if they did not possess powerful tools through the information which they collected from the detaiined Palestinians. Because of the harsh treatment that the Palestinians received in the hands of the Israeli soldiers some opened cases in the Israeli high court. For instance a Palestinian filled a case against the violent shaking which they received but the court defended itself by saying that such a treatment was aimed at making non-cooperative detainees to talk who seemed to have important information for instance the next terror attack.
The torture and other cruel practices helped to prevent more attacks thus securing the Israeli people. Despite the harsh treatment the IDF new well that there was need for a permanent solution which may lead to peace and to confirm their fears the second intifada broke out. The insurgent greatly rebelled and used suicide bombers as well as firearms against Israeli soldiers and civilians. After the endemic suicidal attacks that was witnessed between 2001 and 2002 the IDF resolved to Operational Defensive Shield besides that the west bank was reoccupied by the Israeli Defense Force who made great attempts in arresting terrorists before things turns sore. The IDF strategies managed to reduce massive terror attacks to two between five years and they finally constructed a security barrier which created much international criticism because it was termed as a hindrance to peace negotiations. Analysts believe that the Israeli strategy is not effective because despite the fact that they have reduced the attacks it does not mean that they will never arise. Most of them think that this terror attacks have only been postponed and they are likely to arise in the near future (Kaplan, 2006).
The failure of Israel and the success of the Palestinians in the first intifada
It is always important after gaining victory to look back and consider the ways that the enemy used to rule the population in question. The Palestinians suffered great humiliation, and loss of credibility at the hands of the Israeli soldiers. The Israeli civil and military administrators commanded respect, fear and admiration from the Palestinians. The consequences of such treatment became a reality after two decades when the Arabs decided to revolt in what was termed as the second intifada. The impact of the rebellion was great than what was experienced in the first intifada. The Arabs were viewed as pioneers from there new move. They basically changed their ideological and intellectual discourse into programs which were practical.
The Palestinians embarked on offering their public service to institutions which gave themselves voluntarily. This was something which had been denied for a very long time. Because many Arab countries did not allow any activity which was non governmental to link education and religion and as a result there terrorist knowledge and activities was passed to the succeeding generation through academic institutions. The victory that was achieved by the Israelis opened a great opportunity for the Arabs and the Muslims in general. This opportunity could not have been achieved by the Palestinians during the times when they were under Judaism as well as Egyptian rule. The greatest irony is that things took a great turn after the habitation of Palestine by the Israeli during the 1967 war aftermath.
The Israel administration decided to revive some of the archaic Ottoman law aspects in the newly inhabited regions. Those aspects permitted the development of charitable non governmental organizations which were voluntary for instance creation of service institutions which were privately funded as well as educational institutions. Israel abolished Egyptian stringent laws therefore giving room for the birth of many disasters. The illegal Palestinian groups like Hamas greatly thrived in there newly acquired freedom. The Palestinian lkhwan thrived along two distinct paths. The first path that was taken by the Palestinian was there participation in military activities which was wedged against the Zionist. Secondly the Palestinians put up structures for jahadi; this was a project that was started to fight the Zionist occupation. The Arabs understood well that social mobilization and public support was essential for creation of such infrastructure. The Israel government therefore lost to the Palestinian by abolishing the stringent Egyptian laws (Military review, 2009).
The success of the Israeli against the Palestinians in the second intifada
It has become widely known that the best way to defeat networked insurgents is by applying networked strategies. For this reason the Israeli government employed networked strategies during the second intifada and that is the reason they emerged victors over their enemies who are the Palestinians. The Israel soldiers embarked on fighting for the people; they basically applied a psychological war and as a result there were able to reduce the number of terrorist attacks against its esteemed people. Israeli achieved remarkable victory in the second intifada; victory that has not been achieved by powerful states like the United States.
This victory came about because of a number of factors which included superb intelligence; the initiation of the operational Defense Shield was of great significance because it allowed early discovery of the terrorist plans and as a result many terror attacks were prevented. The military received important information from the network collaborators as well as the Defensive Shield. The security fence which was erected was successful in separating the two populations. Malefactors and transportation of arms and other weapons were successfully controlled and monitored through the various checkpoints besides the security fence. Withdrawal from Gaza was a very instrumental step since issues like increased lethal rockets would not have been successfully prevented by the security fence. Hamas coup was prevented by the security which was deported at Gaza though further protection and security was ensured when the IDF left Gaza. The willingness of the Israeli officers and troops to fight was instrumental in the great victory that was achieved. Finally the covert and undercover operations which were difficult to be identified by the Palestinian population greatly helped in reducing the terrorist attacks against Israeli (Encyclopedia, n.d.).
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