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I am a thinking thing. Descartes is very certain about being thinking think in every experience, belief or sense that he calls into question in his two initial meditations. There is supposed to be no doubt or question about something so as to be certain of that thing. I am sure that I am thinking thing because I can sit here and write an article with my own words, originating from my own mind even though doubt is the suspending of judgment. My words might not be correct always and sometimes they cluttered and make no complete sense although they are my own and I applied thought so as to place them on the paper.
Descartes asserts in his second meditation that a thinking think is that comprehends, denies, doubts affirms, wishes to do one thing and not the other and also perceives and imagines by the senses. I am a thinking thing like the imagination because of my experiences. One big building block set that just keeps on developing is my mind and as I ad asserted my thoughts are there although I might not be right always. Descartes also states in the second meditation referred to as Cogito ergo sum that I think, hence I am. Something exists since there is thinking just in the similar manner stated by Estrada. He also proposed that that was the basis for something ewes are aware of for complete certainty I am a thinking thing. Even though my senses can deceive me, I don’t require them so as to have the skills of my conscious thought. Thinking is nearly same as an involuntary action. In order for thinking to take place, I am not supposed to tell myself to think unless I am not paying concentration and daydreaming clearly.
Descartes asserts in the second meditation that he is now able to see that he had ended up going back where he wished to be without realizing it. Due is due to the fact that he had learned that bodies themselves are not recognized, strictly speaking by the perceived or by the senses because they are observed or touched but only because they are comprehended. I realize clearly that there is no anything that can be recognized more easily by me compared to my mind. I am very sure that I exist and hat I am thinking thing because it is comprehended. I applied my conscious mind without any deception or my senses in order to write this article. Therefore, the things I know with certainty are that I am a thinking thing, I am since I think, I am and I exist.
What is Thinking?
Thinking refers to the highest mental activity present in man. All human accomplishments and developments are simply the outcome of thought. The evolution of culture, art, science and technology, and literature are all outcomes of thinking. Actions and thoughts are not separable; they are really the two sides of a coin. Deliberate thinking is the origin of all our deliberate actions. A man is supposed to see something in his mind’s ye first before he do it regardless of whether it is artistic, literal or science- it takes place in the creator’s mind first before it is actually provided with life in the real world.
The objective of thinking illogically is to reach at a state where thinking is no more essential at all. In short, thinking begins with a problem and ends with a resolution to that given problem. Hence, thinking is an implement for adopting ourselves to the social and physical environment in which we are in. However, our thinking ability can be improved further if proved to be low. For instance, Dr. Edward de Bono stipulates that thinking can be enhanced just like any other skill due to the fact that thinking is a skill according to him. He has created many significant methods for training thinking skills.
Significances of developing thinking ability are diverse. This is because one can make achievements, can shine in social life, can become successful, can attain social, economic and emotional maturity among others by developing one’s thinking skills. It is possible to change person’s aggressive tendencies, bad temper in addition to other negative tendencies constructively and creatively by developing one’s thinking abilities. Dr. Edward has also found that school students’ ill-temper and aggressive tendencies reduced significantly when they were taught to think effectively. It has also been found by clinical psychologists that normals are great thinkers when compared to people who have neuroses. Fascinatingly, neurosis illustrated a remarkable reduction in their neurosis when they were taught to think.
There are quite a number of misconceptions regarding critical thinking even in highly learned individuals. These concepts have been rooted deeply in the society and hence have become very harmful to the growth of thinking skills. This is the time and enough time for us to refurbish them. The most significant of such misconception are:
Errors in thinking
It is essential that we know errors that takes place in thinking. In thinking, there are five types of these errors including adversary thinking, arrogance and conceit, partialism, time scale error and initial judgment as discussed below:
This refers to the concept of “you are wrong. Thus, I should not be right.” type of reasoning. In this kind of reasoning, politicians are masters and use it to their own advantages.
Time scale error
This is a kind of partialism in thinking through which a problem is observed by thinkers from a limited time-frame. It can be compared to short-sightedness.
In this case, the thinker becomes very prejudiced. The thinker approaches an issue or problem with bias or prejudice instead of considering it objectively.
Arrogance and conceit
Sometimes these errors are referred to as the Village Venus Effect due to the fact that the thinker believes that there is no good solution other than the one that has been already found just like villagers who think that the most beautiful girl in the world is the most beautiful girl in their village. Not only people but societies and even the entire mankind fall prey to this error sometimes.
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Why body is not known by the senses
One ought first to identify the senses applied and their contribution to the process of human learning so as to discuss what the sense contribute to knowledge. The human senses including touch, sight, smell, taste and hearing are all commonplace in our daily life, one therefore ought ton to forget their first significance in general before putting into consideration their contribution towards human learning and knowledge. One can make the 17thC argument of empiricism versus rationalism in assessing the importance of these senses; in short, one can draw on the theories and thoughts of Locke in the resistance of Descartes’ beliefs. The argument between rationalism and empiricism can be divided into simple forms of Locke’s imperialism being that all skills originates from the senses, against Descartes’ belief that information can be known earlier before experience via innate concepts. Knowledge is therefore defined by Locke as the perception of the links and agreement, or disgust and disagreement of any of their concepts. The ideas are therefore originated from our sensors that serve as receptors to a given stimulus.
It is Descartes’ belief that human soul was a separate entity from the human body that was applied like pilot that conducted that body to some extent. He separated mind and body as completely different kind of substance came into contact within brain and pineal gland, this is in accordance to Descartes. He chose pineal gland due to the fact that it seems to him to be the only organ which was not duplicated bilaterally and because he believed imprecisely that it was exceptionally human. Consequently, soul can affect body via the nerves and afterward the body could also affect the soul since soul is rational body on its own according to Descartes hence he had developed the first account of the contact between the nervous system as receptors, the body and the mind.
He also made separations where the soul as irrelevant is applied by humans as the judging unit, then mind is simply the body’s pilot which interprets body as a tool and the body is described lastly as a machine all of this bodies left a trouble as separate ones which was how activities and all events coincided and Descartes claimed for this reason that through God’s act they were created to correspond. Descartes decided to use soul as the judging unit of man due to the fact that mankind didn’t perceive the concept of God because of the human world’s imperfection thus there had to be a different spiritual connection between the two so as for god’s principle to innate. Consequently, God ought to be an innate standard stamped upon our souls. Descartes was true believer that human skills was innate to us unlike Locke and that the soul was the witness of those innate thoughts as the pilot of our bodies.