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Psychodrama refers to the psychotherapeutic technique that employs the art of assigning roles in a theatrical manner on a spontaneous basis to an individual client with the support of the group in order to find out the inner emotional and mental nature of the patient. Dr. J.L. Moreno developed this technique. This therapy is used in many disciplines with nursing being the cardinal discipline, in which this therapy is critical. It is used in treating patients with psychological disturbances. The therapy enables the patient to reconstruct a stable and properly functioning psychological state, which might have been disrupted by strenuous psychological situations. Through enactment of situations similar to the patient’s, the subject of the treatment can internally reconstruct a former state or build a new state of psychological well being. The situation used to dramatise is usually similar to the patient’s dilemma. This enables the patient to relate the drama to real life situation that affects him or her. Therefore, psychodrama is a mode of psychological treatment in which everyone including the patient must be involved in spontaneous scenarios for effective treatment.
In a single course of treatment, one patient is involved to enable the actors to focus on one special case. In addition, the patient may be involved in dramatization to assist the actors make a more relevant scene and situation in the play. The people involved in psychodrama as a therapeutic procedure are usually professionals in the psychodrama discipline. When constructing a scene in psychodrama, as a method of treatment, the patient involved should not be able to predict whatever the scene is going to depict. This is supposed to ensure maximum effectiveness of the treatment (Wilkins, 1999). Furthermore, it enables the patient to build an automatic psychological response to any unexpected situations that arise in the course of life. Any imaginable situation may be used in psychodrama to create an unexpected situation.
Psychodrama is very essential in exercising psychiatric nursing. For any psychodramatist, there exist numerous skills and knowledge that need to be internalised to be effective in the practice. The specific roles to be assumed by the psychodramatists, include a therapist, teacher, analyst and a group leader. Since the key role is to offer therapeutic assistance, it is mandatory for the individual to be skilful in the art of spontaneity, creativity, freedom and good health. These skills boost his or her general understanding of the client mind and body reactions. Nevertheless, the therapist needs to be empathetic and receiving to the side of the client. Such key characteristics and concepts are very crucial towards the establishment of realistic and applicable psychological solutions. While assuming the role of a teacher, the psychodramatist guides and teaches the clients various roles that they are assigned to handle with ease and convenience. Analytic nature of the psychodramatist also enhances the ability to develop and demonstrate the appropriate scenarios that suit the problematic situations undergone by the clients in reality (Baim, 2007). Meanwhile, the psychodramatist role of a group leader is very magnificent towards the success of the psychodrama exercise. This character promotes the loyalty and respect from the clients to attempt the various roles assigned. Notably, these characteristics of the clients are achievable through the giving and stimulation nature of there leader.
In psychiatric nursing practice, the use of psychodramatic techniques, such as mirroring, doubling, soliloquy and the role reversal is very critical. The application of psychodramatic techniques by the therapists involves three stages, which include warm up, action and the aftermath discussion. In each session, the director tries to create spontaneity of the scenes that capture the possible situation that has occurred or is being anticipated in the life of the patient. The scenes created reflect the challenges or dilemma that the client could be undergoing. The director, who is the leader, assigns every member of the team a specific part that relates to his or her day-to-day encounters. On the assignment process, the director assesses the mental and emotional reaction of the patients towards their roles. At this level, the patients could either portray a sense of interest or dislike depending on the part they are playing (Razza, 2005). Another key area of analyzing is the reaction that the clients will have due to the anticipation of their roles on the stage. After the warm up stage, the protagonist with his or her fellow actors proceed to the stage, where they depict the lessons gained at the latter stage. After the presentation, a post-discussion is done, which gives every participant a chance to make any comments on the knowledge and skills gained in the exercise. This level of therapeutical treatment gives the director an insight on the mental and emotional state of the client.
Mirroring technique involves the process of assigning the client a specific role that depicts the psychological traumas or challenges that the patient is exposed to. In the warm up stage, the director assigns each client the role to play, while taking into consideration the client’s opportunity to act in the position of the protagonist. At each scenario, the clients portray their capabilities based on their experience and relevance on the psychological problems (%u0110uric%u0301, 2006). As the client attempts their suitability to the role assign, the therapist realizes their potential or exposes the humiliations that such parts align to the internal conflicts. This process allows the leader to analyse the efficiency of the client in the role assigned and the possible solution to impart. Several clients on a single path do a serial warm up and each client is allowed to show their prowess, which guides the director in relating with the clients’ problems. Upon completing the roles assigned, each specific client is given an opportunity to comment on and evaluate the observation made while other clients were attempting the same part. If necessary, the client is given another chance to demonstrate the skills and knowledge gained. In this regard, the second or subsequent chance given to the client becomes significant in portraying the possible lessons learnt, which could contribute to solutions in the psychological challenges they are likely to be undergoing.
Similarly, soliloquy is a psychodramatic technique that reflects on the appropriate ways of finding psychological solutions. This technique involves the act of giving the client a chance to reveal his or her inner imaginations loudly to regain self-confidence and knowledge. On this act, the director realizes the varied ideas or thoughts that revolve in the mind of the client. At the same time, some clients could be evasive and tend to focus on their areas of interests, while leaving the problematic dimensions hanging (Moreno, 2000). Evaluative and purposeful reasoning of the director becomes very critical on this note and facilitates the formulation of possible ideal psychological solutions with the assistance of the Freudian concepts.
Doubling is another psychodramatic technique that the psychiatric nursing practitioners employ in handling the psychological challenges allocated. This process entails the involvement of different clients to act on the same role of the protagonist as the current client being assisted. On this note, the client gains knowledge from his or her counterpart on the possible moves that suits the appropriate situation. The counterpart, at the same time, portrays the likely hidden behaviors exhibited by the client. The adjustments and corrections given by the client become very essential in the simulation process of the psychological solutions that are suitable for the client. Evidently, the director can identify the traumas, challenges, disturbances, shocks and anticipated fantasies that the client could be undergoing. Nevertheless, the client still gains guidance and understanding on the appropriate measures, which are suitable for any likely outcome as revealed in the scenarios dramatized. The mental strength and confidence of the client is enhanced by the stage performance exercise. The therapist, therefore, achieves the sole objective of finding out the hidden behaviours and unrevealed secrets of the client. Moreover, the therapist could realise the context of the client on a solitude state or scenario. Such findings, thus, become very crucial in the creation of the definitive psychological solutions.
Psychiatric nursing practitioners at the same time may adopt the role-playing psychodrama technique to develop psychological solutions. Role-playing entails the act of taking a role that correlates with the traumatic experience the client is going through. The director designs a spontaneous scenario that elicits the mental and emotional challenges the client exhibits. The scenario created helps the client to gain confidence and defensive mechanism necessary to counter the challenges in reality. As the client also plays the significant role with assistance from fellow actors, the client realises the possible environments, in which the knowledge and skill would be suitable (Leveton, 2001). This stage facilitates the director to come up with the ideal solutions or recommendations that are applicable to the context of the client. Additionally, it is known that this technique exhibits some aspects of reality in the client`s actions and deeds. Notably, this technique provides the possible challenges and a variety of methodologies that can be adapted to assist the client.
Role reversal is definitely another crucial technique of the psychodramatic magnificence in the establishment of psychological solutions. It entails the process of assigning the client the role to play, and then later a similar client assumes the same role while the earlier client observes the act (Gershoni, 2003). This design depicts the client capability and effort, while undertaking a certain scene. As the client follows the demonstration of his or her earlier deeds, it prompts the client to develop an insight of the possible weakness or failures and thus induce correctional measures. Additionally, the client learns the appropriate knowledge that is relevant for any scenario that is created by the director. As the psychiatric nursing practitioners adopt this technique, they realise the weaknesses and failures that can be independently corrected by the client, or that need to be eliminated with his or her assistance.
In my opinion, the act of applying techniques of psychodrama is very critical towards the formulation of psychological solutions. As these techniques are numerous, to come up with ideal solutions for any context, a client’s situation is analysed by intertwining the most relevant mechanisms. Repeatedly, the leader of the psychodrama process realizes that certain techniques correlate and suit specific areas of the client`s experience independently. The necessity to come up with the ideal situation that matches the troubles that the client is experiencing, demands the use of this techniques and application of other psychological concepts to realise the intended purpose. In this regard also, a therapist could realize some of the hidden and secretive thoughts and imaginations that cannot be aroused by the client. Moreover, the various aspects not catered for by specific techniques could be covered by others.
The concept of psychodrama, therefore, contributes immensely towards the success of psychiatric nursing. Because of this, appropriate techniques like mirroring and role reversal play a magnificent contribution towards realization of spontaneous scenes that depict the reality of the client’s situation. Application of these techniques enables the establishment of psychological solutions to the client of concern. Additionally, these techniques facilitate the client to get real experiences and skills and use them to solve certain concepts on the process to deal with future challenges.
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