The Nursing profession comprises the largest segment of the largest healthcare system in the United States. However the State is experiencing a crisis of nurses due to various reasons. Sudden population development causing an expanding need for health care services is one of the reasons. Another reason is a retreating channel of new students in nursing and a growing workforce also contribute to the shortage of nurses. To add on, due to enhanced technology and managed-care matters, the sickest patients are the only ones that have need of hospital stays and extreme treatment therefore skillful and expert nurses are in great demand. The matters are happening just as most nurses are retiring and job vacancies within health care are growing. In return hospitals and other institutions require more nurses particularly those who are able to bring specialized care or services (Cowin, 2003).
Nursing shortages and causes
More than 581,500 new nursing vacancies will be formed through 2018 basing on the most recent indications by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics published in November 2009. This will be a rise of 22.2 percent that will create the country’s top career in terms of anticipated job development. In the Health Affairs July/August issue, Dr. Linda Aiken and colleagues from the Centre for Health Outcomes and Policy Research at University of Pennsylvania call for adapting central financial support methods to focus on training more nurses at baccalaureate and higher degree ranks. The strategy reinforcement is required to sufficiently deal with the growing need for ability and nurses serve in primary care and other advanced practice duties. It was stated by researchers that fresh nurses trained in BSN programs are importantly more likely to accomplish the graduate level education required to occupy nursing vacancies where job expansion is anticipated to be the maximum (Barnett, 2010).It was discovered in the July/August 2009 Health Affairs by Dr. Peter Buerhaus that even though the present easing of the nursing scarcity as a result of recession, the U.S nursing crisis is likely to expand to 260,000 registered nurses by 2025. A crisis of such extent would be as double as large as any nursing shortage encountered in the country since the mid 1960s. The investigators spot to a rapidly aging workforce as a main contributor to the projected scarcity. Since the over 50 years of age registered nurses will soon be the biggest age group in the nursing field, their retirement over the next decade will result to an estimated shortfall increasing by 2018.
In accordance to a report published in March 2008 by Dr. Peter Buerhaus of Vanderbilt University School of Nursing and Dr. Douglas Staigner of Dartmouth University, the scarcity of registered nurses in U.S could rise up to 500,000 by the year 2025. It was found out that the demand for registered nurses likely to develop by 2% to 3% yearly. Dr. Christine T.kovner and colleagues discovered in September 2007 that 13% of recently licensed registered nurses had changed primary jobs after one year and 37 % stated that they felt prepared to change jobs. The nurse investigators offer approaches into the characteristics and feelings towards work of latest registered nurses as published in the American Journal of Nursing.
The U.S Hospitals roughly require 116,000 registered nurses to occupy vacant positions in relation to a released report by the American Hospital Association in July 2007. It interprets into a countrywide Registered nurses position range of 8.1%. t was also discovered by the report that 44% of hospital CEOs had a lot of hardship in recruiting registered nurses in 2006 than in 2005. The country’s health professions educational sector is also being threatened by the worsening faculty crisis in academic health centers basing on a report by the Association of Academic Health Centers i July 2007. It is indicated by the survey data that 94% of academic health center CEOs believe that faculty scarcities are an issue in at least one health careers school and 96% think that the crisis is an issue for the whole institution. Most CEOs recognize the scarcity of nurse faculty as the greatest severe followed by related health, medication and pharmacy. In April 2006, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) federal officials project the country’s nursing shortage will intensify with over one million latest nurses by the year 2020. All states will encounter a crisis of nurses to unstable levels.
The crisis of nurses in the United States has various impacts on the patients. It was identified by Dr. Christopher Friese and colleagues in the August 2008 Health Services Research article that nursing training rank was considerably connected with patient results. Nurses trained at the baccalaureate-level were associated with lesser death and failure- to rescue speeds. It was concluded by authors that moving to a nurse work field in which a higher quantity of staff nurses have at least a baccalaureate-level education would lead to significantly less unfavorable results for the sick. In the finding printed in the Journal of Nursing Administration of May 2008, Dr. Linda Aiken and colleagues approved her studies from the landmark 2003 study that indicates a strong connection between registered nurses education degree and patient results. It was titled “Effects of Hospital Care Environment on Patient Mortality and Nurse Outcomes”. It was identified by the leading nurse investigators that each 10% rise in the amount of BS nurses on the hospital staff was connected with a 4% reduction in the risk of death. It is validated in the January 2007 publish of the Advanced Nursing Journal by Dr. Linda Aiken that baccalaureate-trained nurses have a constructive influence on lessening death rates.
Dr. Ann E. Torangeau’s investigation team from the University of Toronto and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario, Canada investigated that 46, 993 are patients admitted to hospital with heart attacks, blood poisoning, Pneumonia and stroke. They further discovered that hospitals with upper magnitudes of baccalaureate-trained nurses possibly have lesser 30-day death rates. The studies showed that a 10% increase in the amount of baccalaureate trained nurses was connected with 9 less deaths for each 1,000 discharged patients. As illustrated by new studies, a shortage of registered nurses trained at the baccalaureate and upper degree rank is putting the patient’s lives at risk. In the American Medical Association September 2003 article, Dr. Linda Aiken at the University of Pennsylvania discovered that patients encounter considerably less death and failure to rescue rates in hospitals where most baccalaureate-trained nurses tend to offer straight patient care. A minimum of 1,700 preventable deaths could have been recognized in Pennsylvania hospitals alone if only baccalaureate trained nurses had included 60% of the nursing staff and the nurse-to-patient proportions had been set 1to 4. Sadly, only 11% of the hospitals have more than 50% of the nursing employees trained at the baccalaureate level.
Strategies for solving the Nursing shortages
However, it was found out by authors in the June 2006 article of Health Affairs with the title” Hospitals’ Responses to Nurse Staffing Shortages”, that 97 % of reviewed hospitals were using educational approaches to deal with nurses scarcity. Definite strategies comprise of associating with schools of nursing, collapsing nurse faculty salaries, repaying nurses for progressing their education in exchange for a work obligation and giving arrangement flexibility for staff to attend classes. There is also a need for more public funding assistancee for the nursing educational scheme to develop student ability.
In July 2007 PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Health Research Institute released a report called “What works: Healing the Healthcare Staffing Shortage”. It enhanced various approaches dealing with the nursing scarcity like expanding more public- private associations, forming healthy work surroundings, using technology as an educating instrument and scheming more flexible tasks for developed practice nurses given their increased use as main care contributors (Montour, 2009).
Dr. Janet Allan and Jillian Aldebron reviewed a series of efforts in progress countrywide to ease the nursing ability crisis in the November/December 2008 issue of the Nursing Outlook. The most promising strategies in four domains are emphasized by the authors. They include educational partnerships or associations, academic improvement, external financial support and encouragement. They also identify the need to recognize the exemplars that are replicable, sustainable and considerable. Staff nurses were requested to point out potential resolutions to the nursing crisis. High proposals included forming professional ladders, expanding educational chances for nurses and advancing communication with the administration. This was according to a study printed in the Western Journal of Nursing Research in October 2006.
In relation to a study printed in Health Affairs article of June 2006, investigators studied hospitals in 12 U.S markets and discovered that most of respondents 97% of them were creating savings in nursing teaching as durable approach to deal with the registered nurses crisis. The savings comprise associating with nursing schools, offering financial support and paying for training programs as well as nurse direction. Despite this, the authors indicate that nursing school ability remains a significant obstacle to future savings in nursing training. They therefore encourage policy makers to create a bigger financial obligation to developing the nursing training scheme (Lanford, 1998).
The U.S department of Labor rewarded over $12 million in grant-funding through the central program including $3 million to deal with the nurse faculty crisis. The latest circle of financing takes the Department of Labor obligation to health care workforce through the High-Growth program to over $43 million. President Bush signed the Nurse Reinvestment Act on August 1, 2002. It was anticipated to lessen the country’s critical nursing crisis by making it more attractive to educate and work in the career.
The Honor Society of Nursing joined Jonson & Jonson to decrease the nursing crisis through the $20 million multi-year Campaign for Nursing’s Future to attract many people to nursing in hospitals and unlimited care services. The Society of Nursing Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI) assisted spearhead the creation of Nurses for a Healthier Tomorrow, a union of 40 countrywide nursing and health care organizations working to handle the nursing crisis. The union has formed a website, formed a marketing movement and protected media reporting to extend the word about the nursing scarcity and persuade the youth to join the career. Over $1 million in financial and in-kind donations have been raised. The movement has received news exposure countrywide and the union’s open service announcements and publish advertisements are operating countrywide.
In conclusion, the need for nurses is frequently portrayed as cyclical in nature. Throughout the history, the USA has encountered a range of nursing surpluses and crisis. The present scarcity has however been described as being different from those encountered in the past. The current nursing crisis will not be sorted by just going back to the resolutions of the past year and tactics to lessen its blow will need to be more inventive and center on the durability (Montour 2009).