Nursing theory is the expression referring to the body of knowledge, which is used to sustain the nursing profession. Nurses, in their professional education, are supposed to study a variety of subjects, which are interconnected, and that can be applied in their practice. Nursing theory is different from the other theories in other disciplines in that, the nursing theory applies specifically to nursing. They are a set of statements that re helpful to the nursing profession.
The nursing theory relates to the nursing profession; they describe, predict and then explain the nursing experience. It also provides the foundation of nursing, aid in generating extra knowledge, in addition to, indication the direction that nursing should take in the future; it is important in deciding what is known and what needs to be known. Moreover, the nursing theory helps in differentiating what should make up the basis of the nursing practice; it describes what nursing is. When there is a defined body of theory in the nursing field, it means there are improved patient care, improved communication, and advanced professional status for the nurses, as well as, guidance for any further education and research.
The nursing theory is also important in that, it analyses and explains what the nurses do. Nursing as a profession, and the nursing theory, tries to adopt an approach to health care that is multidisciplinary. The nursing practice tries to maintain its boundaries. The theories are helpful in the assessment, intervention, as well as evaluation of the nursing profession (George, 2002). They also help in building a common nursing term, which can be used in communication between health professionals. This is in addition to enhancing its autonomy (defining its functions which are independent). The nursing theories also help in the establishment of the criteria to measure the quality of the care involved in nursing. Moreover, it provides a rationale for the collection of reliable as well as valid information on health matters of clients. This client’s statuses are important for making decision and their implementation.
For a theory to be effective, it has to be developed in cooperation with those that are in the nursing profession. They do not follow procedures for practice like those principles that are specific to a situation. Rules involved in a procedure are useful in standardizing the nursing practice. They can be used to achieve minimum goals of giving quality care. A nursing theory is supposed to improve the nursing profession.
Martha Elizabeth Rogers was born in May 12th, 1914 and died in March the 13th, 1994. She was an American nurse in addition to being a theorist, researcher, and an author. She is best remembered for developing the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She also wrote, ‘An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing’.
Rogers defined environment as a pan dimensional energy field that is irreducible, and which can be identified by pattern, in addition to being integral with the human field. She also defined nursing as using science creatively for the improvement of the human. Moreover, Rogers defined health as being characteristics and behavior that emerge out of the mutual and concurrent interaction of the human, plus the environmental fields. She also described client as a unified whole that has its distinctive characteristics that cannot be recognized by, being looked at, described, or summarized.
My own description of nursing is that it is the effective use of its knowledge, which is an art, in helping humanity. On the other hand, environment is an energy field that coexists with the human one. Health is just but an expression of life as a process. These definitions are similar in that they explain that the nursing profession aims at improving the human life. They are different in explaining the environment.
There are various client groups. Those who fit in this theory include the elderly, adult and pediatric clients. The elderly can be taken care of in hospitals or skilled nursing facilities in addition to home health agencies. This involves everyday care that is supportive in nature, medication as well as nutrition. Moreover, the theory could also apply to adult clients. It involves a lot of supportive care, medications and patient assessment. The theory could also fit pediatric clients. They need a lot of supportive care as well.
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