Air is fully occupied with the solid and liquid particles. These particles occur normally due to the burning of fuel for energy and transport. In addition to the solid and liquid particles there also exist gases such as Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and etc. All these particles together pollute the air and are the major cause of air pollution. The air which is breathed in has these pollution particles which directly affect the human body. This poor air quality principally affects the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Human respiratory is consisted of lungs, airways, diaphragm, windpipe, throat, mouth, and nasal passages. The problems which occur in respiratory system and cause the respiratory diseases are mainly because of the smoking and air pollution. Research has shown that there is a strong relation between air pollution and respiratory diseases.
It has been evidence from many experiments that the common air pollutants adversely affect the respiratory system. The effects of pollution on respiratory system include the difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. This is because the health of human lungs and entire respiratory system is affected by the air which they breathe. It has been also viewed that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory illnesses such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. The developments of respiratory symptoms and diseases are increasing day by day due to the environmental factors which mainly include the air pollution.
The association between air pollution and respiratory diseases has increased the risks of deaths to a great extent. In addition to the allergic diseases, the pollution especially air pollution has affected the children and elderly people very adversely. Therefore, it can be said that respiratory diseases are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries. To know the relation between pollution and respiratory diseases, different surveys have been made. These surveys have confirmed that the people who are living near busy roads and more polluted cities are a higher risk of hospitalization and early death from lung cancer and other respiratory diseases than those living far from busy roads and in the less polluted cities. Other studies conducted by the University of Southern California researchers indicate that increases in ground-level ozone, a highly reactive form of oxygen that is the primary component of urban smog, may actually cause asthma. Not only this, the air pollution is also a major cause of respiratory allergies. These allergies are caused by some specific substances released from pollen into the air which is known as pollen allergens. It has been estimated that in Europe, pollen allergens are responsible for 10 to 20% of respiratory allergic diseases. It has long been recognized that air pollution is a threat to human health as it has causes the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Air pollution is directly responsible for a large number of respiratory diseases which as a result cause the deaths.
It is quite evident from the recent research which presents that one in seven people in the UK are affected by some form of chronic lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The World Health Organization estimates that 4.6 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution. This shows that air pollution has a negative impact on the respiratory system and increase the rate of respiratory diseases in the society. It suggests that respiratory system is greatly influenced by the air pollution due has created a lot of damage to the human life. To avoid such risks, there is a need of promoting high quality of life by reducing launching the awareness programmes and reducing the costs which is associated with the respiratory diseases.