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Introduction

Hand washing is a process whereby one uses water to wash hands with a detergent in order to kill germs found on hands. Hand washing is a protection unit practiced to ensure that there is rare transmission of infection. Lack of proper hand hygiene is one of the major causes of the nosocomial infection among other diseases that might occur as a result of germs found on our hands. Hand washing was first discovered early in the 15th century but was used as a form of eradicating infections in 1998. Many campaigns have been held to educate the public on the need to consider hand hygiene by washing our hands regularly especially before eating. Since then, the rate of nosocomial infections has vastly decreased, and almost everyone in the community has discovered the need for hand washing (Brown & Edwards, 2007).

Nosocomial infection

This is a bacterial infection that is contracted by mostly patients while admitted to hospitals. Nosocomial infection is the infections that are probably caused due to poor sanitation and inappropriate health care in hospitals. An infection is considered nosocomial if it is its symptoms appear in the first 48hours after one is discharged from the hospital. Nosocomial infection is transmitted when the nurses responsible for taking patient ignores the regular steps taken to ensure there is proper sanitation always in hospitals because they are sick and have a low immune system; this has made them contract many diseases because their body is unable to fight against diseases. The infections are able to spread because the nurses responsible have abandoned their duties leaving the patient to suit themselves leading to the spread of infections and other diseases. Although hospitals have sanitation protocols such as sterilizing any equipment used by the patients, wearing uniforms, and other means to prevent infections the patient is never from contracting infections.

Problems statement

Hospitals have turned into institutions whereby patients acquire other infections instead of getting solutions to their problems. In some cases, the patient can even become disable and hence reducing his quality of life. A Nosocomial infection is also among the causes of sudden death of healthy patients in hospitals. This has led to loss of massive amounts of money treating diseases that can be prevented through proper hygiene of the involved victims. Nosocomial infection has been one of the major reasons of patient overstaying in hospital due to contraction of other diseases. This infection has not only increased the cost but has also contributed to loss of labor in treating diseases that are contracted within the hospitals.

In the other hand, patients continue dying in hospitals because of lack of money to pay for their treatments. Most of the patients have money for the diseases or infection that made them seek professional advice, and when other diseases arises while thy are receiving their treatments, they are forced to live with the infections since the hospitals treat only people with money. When the patient overstays in the hospital his/her condition becomes worse every day because their immune system becomes weaker every day and there are many contraction the hospitals. Patients are exposed to even more contractions when they have no one to serve them like to provide them with drugs required, sterilize the things they use in their stay, in the hospital and among other duties. According to the recent research, it has been found out that over 90,000 people die of nosocomial infections and over 9 billion is spent annually to cater for their treatment. This means that all the equipment required for a proper environment in hospitals are available, but the people responsible for the duties have just ignored their responsibility risking thousands of lives (Bartlett, 2004).

Purpose statement

The main objective of this project is to ensure that people adapt the routine of washing their hands regularly in order to stop this infection caused by germs that we can easily kill by use of detergents such as Detol soap, Protex and among others. The mission is to educate people on the importance of washing hands and how to wash them. The people should also be taught when one should wash his/her hands. Research indicates that hand washing is among the best solution in killing germs that cause nosocomial infections, and there are still no specific detergents in hospitals that cannot only cleans but kill the germs we are exposed to in our daily lives. The project is also to ensure that any health institution provide the patient with the special detergent for killing germs after washing their hands. Scientists have proven that alcohol is among the antiseptics that can be used to kill the germ by washing hands, but hospitals have refuse to use waterless liquids. This is because alcohol kills the germ by only applying it on the hands without using water and the smell left after using it is not acceptable in health institutions.

PICO statement

The term PICO stands for problems, inventions, comparison outcome. Problem explains the challenges faced by patients in hospitals, for example, nosocomial infections and the challenges they face trying to fight infections. Problem also stands for the deaths caused by the infections contracted in hospitals and the disability influenced by the conditions in hospitals.

Invention explains the efforts made in fighting nosocomial infections and other problems that are encountered by patients during their stay in hospitals. This also explains the invention made to improve the condition of hospitals, and how patients can be safe from the risks of the contraction of bacterial infections around them, for example, the discovery made that alcohol is an antiseptic that can be used to kill germs that are collected by hands without the use of water. This had made possible for patients to kill the germ while still in their room without going out where there is a risk of contracting more germs compared to their sterilized environment. Even though, the hospital could recommend alcohol to be used, there was the invention of specific detergents that are rinsed by water and germs are killed.

Comparison stands for the other options that could be used in controlling the contraction of germs collected by our hands. Example of this is the use of gloves to cover our hands or even use of masks to cover our faces. This was not recommended as a good idea because the gloves and the masks can also be agents of carrying germs that causes nosocomial infections. Gloves could also bring complications to patients when it comes to washing or when they are worn out, and they need replacement.

Outcome as the last abbreviation stood for the consequences of applying the invention made. For instance how it will reduce the number of people that die of nosocomial infections. This is also about the expenses they will be required to accomplish the goals meant to control the infections contracted in the hospitals. The outcome also means the impacts of controlling the dangerous killer infection. For example, the strategies they will be using to ensure that nosocomial infection is never going to come back or even cause more deaths.

Research question

This are questions to be considered to ensure that nosocomial infections are gone for good. For instance, how frequent will the nurses or doctors train the patients on the proper skill of washing our hand with the available detergents to ensure the germs are killed, what will the hospital due to ensure that the hospital does not run out of the detergent needed by the patients, the best strategies to ensure that patients are not over using or misusing the soaps since they are expensive and to make sure that every patient within the hospital is able to wash their hands including the disabled and the ones in critical conditions.

This is a way to ensure the solution made do not in any way affect other people. For example, people in critical conditions are not supposed to be exposed to the environment or even exposed to cold that is inform of water. The hospital should have a strategy for dealing with people with critical condition, by ensuring they are not exposed to germs, and the method used to ensure this is safe for their health. For instance, this people should be the ones using gloves as a way of protecting them from contracting infections and on the other hand, avoid risks of using water to clean their hands as a way of killing germs.

In the research questions, every hospital is supposed to have its own ways of dealing with the patients if there is lacking anything that ensures hand washing. For example, hospitals in the dry region should have their second plan when the hospital runs out of water to ensure that infection will not spread due to a misfortune. Such hospitals should have ready store waterless antiseptics that can kill germs in our hands without rinsing with water. The hospital should also ensure that their second option does not affect any patient in whatever way. For example if there are alcoholics patients and the antiseptic used is alcohol or maybe the antiseptic used is reacting negatively with patients skin, the hospital should have it’s unique strategies of dealing with search situations.

Literature review

This is another step of ensuring that hand washing is practiced in every health institution. Literature materials were published educating every one on the better skills of washing hands and ensuring that hygiene is maintained. This literature material had mostly concentrated on hand washing and the importance of practicing it. This made the people comfortably adopt this with ease since they are instructed on the proper ways to do it and the advantages of doing this.

The literature material provided was proposing that alcohol is the best antiseptic to fight the germs that causes nosocomial infections. They also said that this alcohol should not be recommended, because it is expensive, they should compare with the amount of many spent annually, to cater for nosocomial infections yet people were still dying. They should take the risk of spending money in order to end these preventable deaths. In an article, written by Edward proves that the research that were made due to rumors that bacteria had started becoming resistant to alcohol proved that this is a lie. Several experiments were conducted in different hospital to prove the strength of alcohol and results in all institution were positive.

Although alcohol was proved to be strong and that it is able to effectively fight germs, it was recommended that there is the need to use both in order to ensure safety. The soaps invented were friendly to the user’s skin, that is, they were not reacting negatively with the skin of the user. After sometime, alcohol was replaced with a liquid antiseptic in the form of a gel. The gel was packed in different containers according to the preference of the users. There was small containers almost similar to perfume containers that would fit in the coat if it for men and also in handbags for ladies. This ensured protection after applying it on the hand without even rinsing with water. The gel was used and applied on hand just lie any other oil that is applied on the skin. This made it comfortable for users to apply it from anywhere. It was like an improved quality of alcohol because it had no smell compared to the stuffy smell produced from alcohol.

Even though, there have been progress in inventing antiseptics that effectively works on germs bacteria have also been developing in own ways of fighting this gels by strengthening it’s the immune system. The bacteria have developed a resistant mutant that helps them in reducing the effect applied on them by the modern antiseptics which are meant to protect the public and also patients from these bacteria causing nosocomial infections. According to research made recently by medical and health organization (MHO) the antiseptic agent invented nowadays are slowly becoming ineffective to bacteria. This means that bacteria have now adapted in living in conditions with this gels. Researcher says that if no step is taken to control this we might end up going back to the past where there were thousands of deaths annually due to nosocomial (Taeusch et al., 2005).

Apart from patients and the public there are other people who are exposed to the germs causing nosocomial infection. Nurses and doctor are exposed to different patient with different health problem, and if care is not taken they are likely to be infected. The nurses and doctors protect themselves from the risks by wearing gloves almost every time when they are within the hospital because there can be an emergency and the doctor or nurse involve may be forced to wear a glove. This has been made comfortable for them by the invention of rubber gloves that are light, tight and compatible to any size of the hand. The doctors and nurses are also advised to wear apron all the time when they are within the hospital. This is to ensure there is no possibility of germs from the patients passes to the doctor or nurse. The nurses and doctors should also use protective gadgets while treating patients with different. For example, when dealing with a patient who has infections or diseases that can be spread through the air they are supposed to put on protective devices in their noses or inhaler. This is to avoid the sharing of oxygen between the patient and the doctor. The government supports this by taking the risk of spending money in order to end these preventable deaths (Speziale, Streubert & Rinaldi, 2010).

When washing our hands, it is extremely beneficial to consider the method used. The ideal method recommended is for washing finger by finger using the palm and the dorsum finger to spread the soap one is using. Scrubbing or pressing the skin harder, does not mean that the hand are going to be germ free, instead; they will ease for the attachment of germs and bacteria. The best way is to ensure that the soap is spread to every part of the hard in order to prevent the attachment of germs at any part. Although it is extremely crucial to wash the hands, one is supposed to let the water dry before touching other objects than may be having germs. The best way is to wait for the hands to dry and not wiping them with a dirty or a cloth that is not sterilized. Wiping using another cloth may wipe the antiseptic meant to kill the germs. There are also many bacteria that live in water or wet conditions for example, in the towel. It will be a zero work if one washes his / her hand perfectly and then use such towel to wipe the hands.

Incorporation theory

This is a theory invented by Semmelweis germ, and that says even though nowadays hand washing is considered something normal and natural, in the tradition days washing hands was seen as something odd. Diseases like malaria and typhoid were considered water borne diseases in the 19th century. This was changed when Philips Semmelweis invented hand washing, after discovering that when doctors washes there hands before treating young children or expectant mother, it was preventing them from getting child fever which is nowadays called puerperal fever. It took him a lot of time to discover this and advised doctors to wash their hands always. This finally prevented children from getting puerperal fever. The best way is to ensure that the soap is spread to every part of the hard in order to prevent the attachment of germs at any part. Although it is very valuable to wash the hands, one is supposed to let the water dry before touching other objects than may be having germs. Philips Semmelweis took a lot of time before he released the results of his finding in fighting and investigating the cause of child fever. This was because he was severally criticized of false inventions and discoveries (Weinstein & Bonten 2001).

After this discovery, Philips Semmelweis insisted that people and especially students should use chlorinated water in washing their hands, in order to kill all germs in their hands. After he saw that it had worked for them and the diseases caused by infection were gone he used the same strategy in treating obstetrical patients. Although it was hard for people to understand how washing hands could prevent these diseases they still followed his instruction since they saw how it had worked for many people. Finally the fevers had significantly reduced and people had understood the need for washing their hands regularly. Philips Semmelweis educated the people to wash their hands before and after eating, after visiting the latrines and after duty works like digging among others. This way the people understood the reason as to why they were suffering from diseases that were unpredictable and sudden. This invention made Philips Semmelweis become one of the respected and the people to be remembered till today.

This theory is to educate us on the million of germs that are found on our hands. The hands are the basic tool for almost everything; this makes them to be exposed to germs and causes infections and diseases if the germs or bacteria collected are directed to the mouth. Many of the stomach problems today are caused by the germs we eat in our daily lives. The germs accumulate and when the person infected feels that there is something wrong it is sometimes too late. Germ taken through the mouth can also be from the food we take. This is due poor hygiene in making, coking and processing food. People have been ignorant when it comes to deal with the small infections caused by bacteria found in the food we take. These diseases eventually develop to be one of the dangerous diseases on the globe.

Proposed solutions

The solutions that were discovered and that could possibly end the nosocomial infections are is both to the doctors and patients. The doctors are recommended to always wash their hands with antiseptics that would prevent them from transferring the germs from one patient to the other. They are also advised to prevent the spread of nosocomial infections by treating or even allowing only one patient at a time to the treatment room. This is to prevent the patient from transferring bacteria to their selves and even worsening their states of health. The waiting room where all patients wait for the doctor to finish with a patient at a time should be sterilized every day and if possible twice a day. By doing, this patient will not be spreading or getting infections from one another through touching or sitting in the same room. The best way is to ensure that the soap is spread to every part of the hard in order to prevent the attachment of germs at any part (Walliman, 2005).

Although it is extremely beneficial to wash the hands, one is supposed to let the water dry before touching other objects than may be having germs. There should also be projects educating people on the way forward in dealing with such kin of infections. The project is also to ensure that any health institution provide the patient with the special detergent for killing germs after washing their hands. Scientists have proven that alcohol is among the antiseptics that can be used to kill the germ by washing our hands but hospitals have refuse to use waterless liquids. This is because alcohol kills the germ by only applying it on the hands without using water and the smell left after using it is not acceptable in health institutions. The hands are the basic tool for almost everything; this makes them to be exposed to germs and causes infections and diseases if the germs or bacteria collected are directed to the mouth. This is why nowadays here are several people with stomach related problems for example stomach ulcer, typhoid, and diarrhea among other deadly diseases.

The government should also join this by implementing law that will punish the doctors, nurses or ay other person working in a health institution who will try to risk the life of the patients or even themselves. The government should also highly find those individuals in order to make the others take the responsible steps in ensuring that the health of the patients is protected and not only treated. The funds donated by the government to develop projects should be investigated to where they were allocated and the benefit of where they are allocated. This has been made comfortable for them by the invention of rubber gloves that are light, tight and compatible to any size of the hand. The doctors and nurses are also advised to wear apron all the time when they are within the hospital. They are also supposed do this anytime that they are within the hospital’s compound. By doing this, doctors, nurses and other profession in the field of medicine will never risk the lives of patient and those who make a mistake of doing this will correct themselves because of the consequences.

The public and the patients as well should take a step of reporting any one involved in situations that is risking the health of other patients. The patients should be responsible for washing their hand even without being forced by doctors or the person involved or responsible for ensuring this. Patients who decline following the instruction as given by the doctors should also be punished to prevent others from disrespecting the doctor, nurse or any other health profession involved. . This will be possibly reduce or even end the nosocomial infections because alcohol is readily available and at a cheap price when compared to other soaps that are used to kill germs.

Conclusion

Nosocomial infection has been a threat to many lives for a long time. After several measures were taken it slowly reduced the number of death and disability cases it caused. The public, the government and the doctors joined their strength and eradicated the treat which was risking many people’s lives. This has proven how far a country can go when trying to fight a national or an international disaster.

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