Table of Contents
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to develop a lesson for a Saudi Arabian hookah smoker. It will investigate all the social and health risks that face hookah smokers in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, all variables of the adverse effects of hookah smoking on health, healthcare practice, and recommendations will also be explored. A secondary aim will be to investigate the accuracy of self-reported smoking of hookah in Saudi Arabia. It will help to substantiate the claims regarding the rate of risks associated with hookah smoking in the country. Since the previous researches have already identified some risks caused by the hookah use, the study aims at determining the level of these risks. The ways of developing hookah addiction will also be a central focus while developing the education Reference Judie.
Description of Proposed Methods and Procedures
The Research Question(s)
- What knowledge do hookah smokers have about the risks that are involved with both active and passive smoking?
- What percentage of all healthcare workers and practitioners make recommendations about hookah smoking according to the 5 A’s approach?
- Are the recommendations given by health practitioners to hookah smokers in compliance with the present day clinical guidelines?
- Can hookah smoking status be predicted through the use of a linear composite of the variables listed below: sub-scores of the health Belief model, total knowledge score, and healthcare provider inquiry of smoking status?
- What social support members can be termed as the most influential on smoking status for hookah smokers?
- What proportion of hookah smokers are truthful about their present smoking status?
This paper employed developmental method. This is the method used to assess a particular type of change over an extended period. Thus, it was relevant in this case as it would help in evaluating the health and social risks of using hookah in Saudi Arabia.
In the process of data collection, all people present in the waiting area of a healthcare facility at the moment were approached. They were asked whether they were hookah smokers and reached the age of 18 years. All respondents in the affirmative were subsequently invited to participate in the study. The research motive was explained, and those who were interested to participate were given consent forms to sign. Afterwards, data were collected for an extended period of 6 months on five separate dates. Only two smokers declined to participate in the research refusing to give reasons for this. There were also some hookah smokers who never participated, because they were below the stipulated age of 18 years.
Saliva samples of the participants were collected according to the outlined protocol. All the samples were labeled in order to eliminate the possibility of a mix-up and thus confusion and be able to identify the sample of each participant. The members were informed that the outcomes of individual tests would be anonymous and their participation in the research would not affect any of their daily activities.
In this research, there were few assumptions:
- The ones that did not respond to the invitation of participation did that according to their will.
- None of the participants lied during the entire study period.
- Methods of computation of the collected data were accurate and the best that could have been used.
The most prevalent limitation in this paper was that it turned out to be a self-reported survey endowed with the possibility of inherent bias. The sample utilized was limited since it was selected on the basis of convenience. Thus, the findings and results may not be applied to some smokers of hookah. The lack of inconsistency in the research sample might have affected some of the results. For instance, the section where the most invariability might have occurred is the non-significant results. Given the fact that the data collected came from the hookah smokers, there is a possibility that the data gathered from healthcare providers and practitioners might be inaccurate. In order to improve reliability, it would have been necessary and efficient to gather information from healthcare providers and professionals about their utilization of the 5A’s.
The other limitation of this research is the fact that additional information as well as the studies concerning other variables related to hookah smoking were needed. Further research that is focused on the essential role of the society as a support to smokers and the role of addiction is also required.
While the development methodology is usually viewed as a controversial health research model, it was chosen for this study due to various reasons. Firstly, the constructs of this method are supported at different times. It also has an excellent internal consistency that was needed in this research.
Another reason for choosing this model was that it understands that behavior change is not a linear but rather a cyclic process in nature. It also pays attention to the primary notion of relapse. Finally, while this model has been used widely in other surveys, it has been neglected in research studies. Thus, it fits the aim of the study that is to test predictive qualities and examine the outcome of the research.
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The criteria of inclusion were the study of the following:
- Smokers who were not at the experimental stage of hookah smoking
- Health outcomes among intermittent smokers
The exclusion criteria took into account the following:
- Adolescents and underage hookah smokers
- Smokers who were in the experimental phase of smoking hookah
Libraries used. (The name of the university library) was used for this project.
Search engines and databases used. There were two major databases used – PubMed and EMBASE.
The terms that were searched for in this study are hookah, human health, risk factors, smoking, social risks, and Saudi Arabia.
This research did not rely on Boolean strings for related searches.