Marketing is the role that organizations play in order to create and exchange value with customers (Silk and Harvard Business School Press, 2006). Marketing practitioners and researchers play vital roles in creating strategies essential for better performance in an organization. This is through using different knowledge, such as innovative and cultural knowledge, that aims towards achieving better organizational performance. A successful marketing practitioner requires deep knowledge to understand the needs of customers. This knowledge will help a marketing practitioner to compete with competitors favorably. It will enable the collaborators set up the capabilities of an organization in serving customers profitably.
Marketers should employ marketing knowledge and skills vital for setting and executing marketing strategies. The culture, consumer behavior, marketing knowledge and self-knowledge are both crucial when carrying out marketing research. This is crucial because it will enable market practitioners and researchers become successful in their marketing field. Marketing research should be conducted in order to enable distributors or sellers carry out their transactions effectively. The scientific and qualitative research is significant because it enables marketers to employ marketing mix tactics in achieving their marketing goals.
Marketing is a field that requires one to have significant knowledge and skills to carry out successful marketing strategies. I worked as a marketer in one of the private sectors and gained substantial knowledge about marketing. I carried wide range of activities that helped me to become knowledgeable in the marketing field. Achieving organizational goals requires one to understand varied things including needs and wants of target group in the market. Understanding their culture, consumption pattern and the place to market products is vital. This is because it will enable a marketer to deliver the desired goods. One needs to formulate marketing strategy in order to achieve success in market field. This is crucial because marketing strategies enable organizations to concentrate on their limited resources to increase sales in order to attain competitive advantage sustainability. One should take into considerations the need of customer and become customer-oriented in order to satisfy customers more effectively than the competitors (Wright, 2006).
Market practitioners and researchers should use different kinds of knowledge in the marketing field to draw on, to inform business or leadership skills. Cultural knowledge is the fundamental aspect that market practitioners or researchers should posses. Understanding varied cultural beliefs of customers are vital. This is because it enables the marketers to provide a different kind of services that meeting the needs of customers without affecting their cultural beliefs. According to Burns and Bush (2000), cultural knowledge enables the market researcher to understand the way customers behave in the market. It is easier for marketers to deliver services that satisfy customers. This is through understanding what they need or want.
One should be careful when dealing with different customers whose beliefs are different. This is because different cultural beliefs may impact the performance of business, and this will lead to poor organizational performance. Therefore, market practitioners should take cultural knowledge into considerations because it will enable them to become successful in the market.
Additionally, cultural knowledge is an external influence that may affect the consumer behavior. These influences are imposed by different individuals to a consumer. Culture is a complex and interdependent component that impacts organization (Wright, 2006). This may contribute to poor organizational performance thus market practitioners should understand diverse cultural norms and beliefs of an environment. This will enable them to carry out their marketing effectively and efficiently without being affected by the language barrier problems. The positivist might support the practitioners in carrying out qualitative research that aims at achieving better results in an organization. It is essential for marketers to know the ways of dealing with their customers from different cultural background. Market practitioners should ensure that they have learnt and understood different cultural beliefs because it is a mechanism learnt in a process. Dealing with different cultures is difficult for most of market practitioners because it is indefinable, and difficult to understand cultural norms of various groups of people. A marketer may violate the cultural beliefs of a given society without being well-versed (Groucutt, Leadley and Forsyth, 2004). This may impact business performance of an organization. The market researchers must be careful not to stereotype other’s cultural beliefs because it will affect business performance.
Another knowledge that marketing practitioner or researchers should draw on business is self-knowledge. Self-knowledge is one of the philosophical aspects that market researchers need to poses. This is crucial because it will enable the marketers to understand when, how, what and to who they will market their products. Some people ignore self-knowledge and yet it is a tool vital for creating change in an organization (Pride and Ferrell, 2008). This is because it will enable market practitioners to understand what is required in the market and when do customers need the services. Self-knowledge will enable market practitioners to understand a particular environment effective for product distribution. Market changes due to different factors affecting supply and demand market for products, thus self-knowledge is crucial. This is because it will help the marketers to evaluate the marketing conditions that may favor the marketing of products.
Innovational knowledge is another skill necessary for market researchers. Innovative skills are vital for the organization that aims to achieve success in marketing. It enables the researcher to carry out effective marketing strategies essential for delivering services in the market. With innovational knowledge market practitioners may be able to meet the need of customers in the market. Innovational knowledge will enable organization to manufacture high quality products. This can contribute to increased profitability because customers always demand highly innovative products in the market. This knowledge will enable the marketer to employ market strategies such as use of Face book, Google, Blogs and other social networks in advertising their services.
Consumer behavior knowledge is another aspect that market practitioners and researchers should understand. Understanding the psychological behaviors of the way a consumer reasons and makes the decision between alternatives is crucial. There is a need to understand the way a consumer is influenced by different environmental factors such as culture, media or family (Burns and Bush, 2000).This is because it will enable the market practitioners to understand the ways of dealing with these issues. The market researcher should understand the way consumer behaves when making the decision or consumption choice. Marketer researches should understand the way consumer motivation and decision strategies vary in their performance level. This will enable them to improve their campaigns in the market and employ effective strategies to meet the needs of consumers.
The last one is marketing knowledge and it is defined as a mechanism for distribution of knowledge resources. Knowledge resources integrate management and organizational knowledge in order to provide information essential for organizational output. Marketing knowledge involves the required strategies necessary for contributing towards successful marketing. Marketing practitioners should employ strategies such as the four market mix of promotions, price, place and products. Providing promotion of products to the market is crucial because it helps in creating awareness to the customers the available products in the market. It is crucial to have knowledge of the place for markting the products. This is because it will enable the marketing practitioners to understand people’s demands in the marketing area. This will enable marketers to have knowledge about the needs and wants of clients in a given environment.
One of the philosophical assumptions underlying research and practice in the market field is the operative paradigms. Operative paradigm is a methodological tool for analyzing, designing and making service design visible to private and public business administration (Groucutt, Leadley and Forsyth, 2004). It is a tool used for solving problems under marketing research. Its main concern is to develop a tool for designing and representing services. It focuses on experimental issues carried out through research, which are mainly related to service encountering linking services between customers and service providers. It is an effective tool because it solves problems in the marketing field. It is effective because it creates a new convergence between local and individual solutions to organizational production.
Another philosophical assumption is the scientific practice. This philosophy is concerned with the assumptions, techniques and implications of science. It is concerned with application in the marketing field in order to determine if scientific outcomes are areas of study of truth in marketing. Many scientific philosophers take into considerations the problem in a particular field and attempt to come up with conclusions (Moore and Pareek, 2006). Scientific practices play vital roles in marketing because they enable practitioners and researchers to make assumptions on their marketing activities. Scientific practices are effective because they enable companies to come up with innovative products that are of high competitive value in the market. It is an effective philosophical approach that helps market researchers to apply certain skills in producing unique products in the market. Additionally, the philosophers of sciences investigate philosophical problems underlying marketing field.
Moreover, scientific research depends upon the multiple collection of work from different individuals. The researcher employs varied methods when investigating a certain phenomena in the market. They carry out experimentations, descriptions and comparison of different individual research reports provided by different researchers. The methods are separated and description is made in details. Most market researchers employ one scientific method, which overlaps or is combined with others. One single study may have feature of varied scientific methods. The research method choice depends on the research questions that it seeks to address (Moore and Pareek, 2006). It is significant to discuss them differently in order to understand the principal features of each, despite the interconnectedness and overlap of the methods.
Management practices are the underlying research assumptions in the market field. Management includes all the activities, resources and people in the organization. Effective management in an organization is crucial because it enables marketing practitioners to formulate effective strategies of competing with their competitors. Management practices are effective because it is through proper management of activities that organization can perform better. Management practices may impact marketing activities in case of poor practices. Effective management practices contribute to resource management efficiently. This is because it will enable the organization to allocate resources effectively to marketing research and other activities such as advertisements and training activities (Pride and Ferrell, 2008).
Qualitative research is another philosophical assumption that tries to evaluate certain assumptions in the research study. This philosophical assumption consists of the nature of reality, and things that are valued in research. Qualitative research in marketing is justifiable in its own way. Qualitative research enables market researchers to carry out effective research of marketing techniques effectively. The nature of reality and ontological issues are revealed out. The market researchers carry out qualitative research on an individual basis with intent of reporting on multiple realities. The individual reports are complied in order to evaluate the report for quality purpose. Additionally, in the case of epistemological assumption, the researcher tries to possible to the data provided in qualitative research.
The assumptions above are justified, desirable and consciously held by practitioners and researchers in the marketing field. This is because such assumptions help market practitioners and researchers in making marketing assumptions. For instance, they use operative paradigms in analyzing and determining marketing activities that would effectively promote success in an organization. Moreover, scientific practices enable them to make assumptions in the process of product innovation. This assumption would enable them to produce more innovative products, which will enable a company to compete favorably with other competitive organizations (Wright, 2006).
The qualitative research assumptions are justifiable and desirable because they will enable market researchers to carry out quality research. This is crucial because it will help the private and public sectors to carry out effective business, thus increasing their performance. The methods employed in qualitative research procedures are essential because they enable the market researchers to fully understand the complex phenomenon. The methods are desirable and they depend on the assumptions. They depend on the existing knowledge that provides descriptive information or experiments to data collected. The descriptive and comparison methods are used in qualitative research and are vital because they provide real solutions to the problems.
Management practices are desirable because they will help the marketing practitioner and researcher to carry out their tasks effectively. Management practices are desirable in any organization that may want to succeed in the competitive market. This assumption may help the company carrying out market research to cry out research effectively. Effective management systems in an organization are desirable because they contribute towards successful performance in an organization. They may contribute to effective resources allocation and this will enable the organization to achieve their intended goals. Better management practices are justifiable because they will help the marketing researchers to achieve their intended goals.
Some approaches, such as the conventionalist approach, may challenge the above assumptions and their practical consequences. The conventionalist approach is a philosophical attitude that is based on certain accordance with general agreement (Groucutt, Leadley and Forsyth, 2004). The conventionalist has law-based on agreement in a simplified form. They are established code that addresses a particular issue. The conventionalist might challenge or argument the above assumptions and their practical consequences. They may argue on scientific practices used in marketing that are devise rationales, but they may fail to achieve intended goals. They may raise arguments over the use of such assumptions that they are really not paradoxical or they may cause market imperfection. The conventionalist may augment on the practical consequences of the assumptions that they consist of unbiased information. This will hinder them produce better results when carrying out marketing research.
The positivist might challenge or augment those assumptions and their practical consequences in different ways. One of the assumptions is that it augments on the practical experiments carried out by scientific researcher. This will enable the market researcher to employ methods essential for research investigations. The positivist is a philosophical approach, which analyses the logical views of social, natural sciences or sensory experiences in order to achieve worthwhile innovation. The positivists engage in research and they have a belief system, which is similar to the scientific approach in research. This appproach takes into consideration logical, cause and effect-oriented approaches. The positivists inquire a logical series of circumstances happening in the marketing field. They may view multiple perspectives from different researchers rather than a single reality. They employ multiple data analysis, and utilize computers in analyzing data. The positivist might support the practitioners in carrying out qualitative research that aims at achieving better results in an organization.
- The field selected was marketing. According to Silk and Harvard Business School Press (2006), marketing is defined as the role that organizations play in order to create and exchange value with customers. There is need for improvement of marketing knowledge when carrying out business. This is because it will enable market practitioners and researchers to compete favorably in the market.
The philosophical concepts and topics the paper will address include;
- The operative paradigms, which is a tool for analyzing and designing business values. This is a tool designed for analyzing and designing services which are visible in the business sector (Groucutt, Leadley and Forsyth, 2004).
- Another concept addressed is scientific practices and the way they are effectively used in carrying out marketing research. They help marketing practitioners and researchers to come up with ideas of producing innovative products (Moore and Pareek, 2006). This will enable the organization to compete favorably with the competitors.
There are different kinds of knowledge practitioners and researchers in the marketing to inform business or leadership decisions. These include the following;
- Innovative knowledge, which is vital in marketing. It enables the researcher to carry out effective marketing strategies essential for delivering services in the market. Innovative knowledge can be carried out through training programs in order to enable marketers to get acquainted with skills necessary for organizational development.
- Cultural knowledge is vital and it should be well understood. Wright (2006) argues on the need for understanding cultural knowledge in order to satisfy customers in the market. This is through providing them with products and services that suit their cultural needs.
- Self-knowledge is one of the philosophical aspects that are essential for market researchers need. Self-knowledge is crucial because it will enable the marketers to understand ways or means of distributing their products to customers in different areas.
- Consumer behavior knowledge. This is vital because it helped individuals to learn new cultures that will help them in business communication (Silk and Harvard Business School Press, 2006).
- Marketing knowledge is crucial because it will enable market practitioners and researchers to compete favorably in the market. Moore and Pareek (2006) address the significance of carrying out marketing research in an organization.
The philosophical assumptions I intend to evaluate include;
- Management practices is a philosophical assumptions meant for resource management in an organization. Management practices take into consideration all the resources of the organization, employees and all the activities carried out within an organization (Pride and Ferrell, 2008).
- Qualitative research is another philosophical assumption that attempts to evaluate definite assumptions in the research study. This philosophical assumption reveals the need for carrying out qualitative research in an organization.
- Another one is the scientific practices, which tries to provide the ways of producing commodities that of high competitive in the market. This method employs experimental and descriptive methods in producing quality data. It is concerned with the assumptions issues of techniques and implications of science.
There are varied arguments regarding whether the assumptions are justifiable, desirable and consciously held by practitioners in the marketing field.
- The conventionalist may argue on scientific practices used in marketing research that they are rationale and they may fail to obtain the required goals.
- The scientific practices consist of unbiased information and may produce better results when carrying out marketing research. This is because scientific practices are vital because they give a clear understanding of the detailed information.
- The conventionalists argue that the assumptions made are rational and they may impact the performance of an organization. This is because they may affect marketing of commodities, and organization may lead to reduced profitability.
- The positivist might support the practitioners in carrying out qualitative research process. This research process aims at achieving better results in an organization.
There are varied list of sources that I intended to use. These sources are vital because they supported my position in varied ways. One of the ways is that they provided variety of information that is based on the marketing field. Another way is that they provided adequate data essential in marketing. These sources include;
- Burns, A. C., & Bush, R. F. (2000). Marketing research. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
- Groucutt, J., Leadley, P., & Forsyth, P. (2004). Marketing: Essential principles, new realities. London: Kogan Page.
- Moore, K., & Pareek, N. (2006). Marketing: The basics. London: Routledge.
- Pride, W. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (2008). Marketing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
- Silk, A. J., & Harvard Business School Press. (2006). What is marketing? Boston, Mass:
Harvard Business School Press.
- Wright, J. (2006). Blog marketing: The revolutionary new way to increase sales, build your brand, and get exceptional results. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
In conclusion, marketing is the role played by an organization in creating and exchanging values with customers. Marketing practitioners and researcher take varied roles of ensuring that they have provided services that satisfy the needs of their customers. They apply different knowledge including innovation, marketing knowledge, cultural and self-knowledge and skills that help them gain favor in competition. Cultural knowledge is considered vital when is well understood. It is vital to understand the way consumers behave in the market and the way they decide between alternative commodities. Understanding their consumption behaviors will continue to better organization performance. This is because it may impact the marketing of products, thus contributing to poor performance. Marketers should ensure that they provide innovative products and understand the cultural beliefs of customers. This will help them to deliver services that suit their needs. Marketing practitioners and researchers employ philosophical assumptions including scientific practices, management practices, qualitative research and operative paradigms for making marketing assumptions. However, these assumptions have effects in an organization. There are some approaches, such as the conventionalist and positivist approaches that may challenge the philosophical assumptions and their practical consequences. The conventionalist may argue that the philosophical assumptions may not achieve the intended goals of the researchers. Positivist might support the practitioners in carrying out qualitative research, which aims at achieving better results in an organization. The arguments raised behind these assumptions are that some of the philosophical assumptions may not achieve intended goals effectively. Some of them are that, some of them like scientific practices are unbiased and they may achieve the intended goals.