Advertising is a non-personal form of communication meant to influence an audience to buy or take some action upon products, services or ideals. This introduces a product or service and how they can be of use to the consumer. Advertising can as well serve to communicate ideas to public in an attempt to persuade people to take a certain action, such as urging people on environmentally friendly behaviors as well as unhealthy behaviors through food consumption. Modern advertising evolved with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Petley, 2002). Mass media is any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. There are several types of mass media, for instance, radio, published pictures and articles, news programs, television, and internet.
So that to discover the true meaning of an advertisement, there is need to examine how the different elements are arranged and framed in the way they are. This is referred to as advertisement analysis. Before advertisement analysis is done it’s a good idea to reflect a bit on the intention of the analysis. The purpose might be to deconstruct the advertisement, to critique it, and to understand the specific social condition or advertising strategy (Presbrey, 1929). Some of the things looked at when analyzing a print advertisement are: the text used which must be carefully crafted to come up with a consistent message about the advertisement, the images used in the advertisement and the target audience of the advertisement. The images are worthy very many words and these images must have a relationship with the text used (Petley, 2002).
Fowles’ 15 appeals and Klein’s discussion of branding are used to shape the analysis of a given advertisement. An advertisement may or may not utilize all the Fowles’ 15 appeals but a good advertisement must at least cover reasonable number of them.
Analysis of GABBANA Underwear Advertisement
The advertisement of the GABBANA Underwear was obtained from the GQ Magazine. Fowles’ 15 appeals that are used to shape the analysis of an advertisement are: the need for sex, need for affiliation, need to nurture, need for guidance, need to aggress, need to achieve, need to dominate, need for prominence, need for attention, need for autonomy, need to escape, need to feel safe, need for aesthetic sensations, need to satisfy curiosity and Psychological needs. Of the 15 appeals that Fowles consider, the six that are most relevant to Dolce & Gabbana’s marketing strategy of the GABBANA Underwear are the need for prominence, need for attention, need for affiliation, need for aesthetic sensations, need to feel safe and the need to dominate (Fowles, 1976).
Fowles describes prominence as the need to be admired and respected, to enjoy prestige and high social status. The three men in the print advertisement look healthy and attractive. The individuals in the target group believe that to buy the underwear they will rise up the prestige hierarchy, or achieve the same effect with GABBANA underwear, which unambiguously describes itself as a luxurious fashion.
Attention is described by Jib Fowles as the need to be looked at. The wish to exhibit oneself in such a way as to make others look at them is a primitive, insuppressible instinct. The clothing and cosmetic industries exist just to serve this motive, and this is the way these industries pitch their products. Some of this effort is aimed at males, as the advertisement for GABBANA underclothes. Once a targeted person looks at this advertisement he will be the object of fascination and get propelled to buy the underwear. The desire for exhibition has been most markedly played to in a print promotion.
As described by Fowles, affiliation is the need to associate with others. Three men are seen in the advertisement; it seems to be an excellent company. All types of commodities are sold by linking them to one’s unfulfilled needs to be in an admirable company. Friendship is a form of affiliation used by Dolce&Gabbana in advertising the underwear. In any case, the desire to unite with others is commonly invoked in advertising and is most likely the most frequent appeal. Numbers of consumers, wanting affection get convinced and buy the product, in this case GABBANA underwear (GQ Magazine, 2008).
Jib Fowles describes the need for aesthetic sensations as the desire for beauty and is depicted by the GABBANA advertisement. The three men are looking extremely smart and therefore most men will get attracted to buy the same brand of underwear to look attractive as well. Advertisers are aware that chances are minimal for a good communication to occurring if an advertisement is not visually enjoyable. Consumers may not be aware of the level of their own sensitivity to artwork, but it is unquestionably large. Sometimes the aesthetic element is expanded and made into an advertisement's primary appeal (Fowles, 1976).
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The need to feel safe is also utilized by the advertisement as the three men are looking undisturbed, having no fear at all. Somebody would also like to possess the same kind of underwear to achieve the undisturbed mood and feel safe. Nobody in their right mind wants to be menaced, intimidated, battered and poisoned. Individuals naturally want to do whatever it takes to keep away threats to their well-being. So that to keep failure and calamity from one’s live, they would like to see the durability of products demonstrated (Fowles, 1976). With GABBANA underwear an individual will feel safe as it keeps external clothes from being soiled by sweat, semen, urine, and other discharges, also shapes the body (GQ Magazine, 2008).
The need to dominate is often thought of as being masculine and this can be seen from the print advertisement. The nature of the underwear made it the perfect product for the visual representation of growing beliefs concerning masculinity. The three men are muscular and they seem to have done vigorous exercise as their bodies glisten with sweat. This fundamental need is the craving to be powerful, perhaps supreme, as in the advertisement the three men look strong. For an individual to compare himself with the men seen in the advertisement, he has to purchase the GABBANA underwear. The need to dominate and manage one's surroundings is often thought of as being masculine.
The name GABBANA is brand name. A brand is the uniqueness of a specific product, business or service, a brand can take many forms, including a name, symbol, color combination, sign, or slogan. The word brand came out simply as a way to tell one person's cattle from another by using of a hot iron stamp. An officially protected brand name is referred to as a trademark. The word brand has continued to grow to mean identity and it denotes the personality of a product, company or service. Klein’s branding strategy suggests that consumers are drawn to the possible lifestyles that the products claim to provide for them. Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian luxury fashion house. Dolce & Gabbana uses the brand name GABANNA to represent luxurious lifestyle (GQ Magazine, 2008). Hence as an individual in the target group comes across the underwear with the name GABBANA in the market will get motivated to buy as it is a luxurious fashion.
The print advertisement is full of graphic showing a sense of togetherness. The three men are close together and they seem to have the same interest. Their facial expressions depicts that they are thinking on similar issue and that they are keen and comfortable. The middle aged men have all posed well. They seem to be rich as they look healthy and smart. The three men seem to have been doing vigorously exercise together. This indicates that they associate as best friends and have common interest. The language used in the advertisement essentially provide the information, the copywriter has used a technique called simple solutions which means that his advertisement is understood easily. The name GABBANA he used denotes “to be luxurious” which of course the underwear possesses. Tw Cen MT was used as the font type as it can easily be readable and understood.
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The advertisement uses axial balance as the visual elements balances on either side of an imaginary vertical line through the center of the advertisement. The atmosphere of the advertisement is a luxurious and calm place as the men in the advertisement are seen at ease.
Advertising is a message intended to promote or sell a commodity, an idea or a service. Advertising reaches the public through different types of mass communication. In daily life, people get in touch with varied kinds of advertising. Printed advertisements are found in newspapers and magazines. Poster advertisements are mounted in buses, trains and subways. Therefore any given advertisement need to be simple and clear for different target groups to get the message put across.