Ethical issues in teaching and learning Confidentiality is the main part of ethical issues in teaching and learning. Teachers have given full rights to access the personal data?s of the students. The personal data?s includes the family circumstances and personal problems of each student. This information must be shared with others for the benefit of the students. This information must be shared legally and ethically and no malpractice should be performed. If they have any doubt regarding the access information they should consult the best practitioner in this field. May be the mentoring teacher is a good choice for them. Gossiping is the other main ethical issues that should be considered in the field of Teaching and learning. They should not gossip about their colleagues, professional practices which they are indulging, or in any other strange conditions. Teacher should act like a professional and not like family women who is interested in gossiping. If the teachers are having any concerns or doubts in this matter they should take up this issue to the teaching mentor. They will solve these issues and give good advice regarding the problems you are facing. (Practical ethics, 2009) Teacher must realize that the main purpose of the teaching is to develop the career of the student and they are the sole responsibility for giving good learning environment to the students. Teacher should evaluate the performance of the students based on the assessment of the student. The assessment should be made independently and there should not be any room for influence in the student mark assessment. The teacher must follow a strict procedure in providing a good assessment to the students. Another important thing is students must be given marks according to his/her participation in the class and other extra curricular activities. Teachers are not advised to get any gift or remuneration for their services. A personal gift from any students is an acceptable one. However that should not influence the assessment of the students. This is a serious breach of code of conduct of the teachers. Student assessment must be made independently without any influences by the student in possible ways. Teachers should not act as an agent for the particular commercial product and try to get popularize among the students. Teacher position should not be misused to endorse any commercial products. However there may be some exceptional like endorsing the social issues, popularizing ill effects of diseases like Cancer, Aids and Tuberculosis. District Administrator may choose the particular teacher to give coaching for the students. Teacher may be given additional charges like heading the Sports Club and Student coordinator. These types of additional works are legal and the teachers may accept it according to their commitment. Teacher must provide enough direction to the students in the academic part. They should tell the student that the research based study is good approach to any subject. Teachers should treat all the students equally and they must develop the student?s attitude as a critical thinker. They have to teach the students that every student is capable of doing the anything and they should be agents of their own growths. (Frederick, Peter J. 1987) Active learning plays an important role in the ethical issues of the Learning. Active learning is allowing the student to express freely in the classroom. Instead listening blindly to the lecture?s voice, this type of active learning will influence some interests to the student. Listening to the lecture will improve assessment based on the marks only. The big question is what the student is getting from the lecture? Whether it is useful for the student to solve the real life situations or not? These questions must be answered by the teacher. Giving exercises like One Minute Paper, Clearest Point, Affective Response, Daily Journal, Reading Quiz, Clarification Pauses, Response to a demonstration or other teacher centered activity, Socratic Method, Wait time, Student Summary of Another Student's Answer, Quiz/Test Questions, The Fish Bowl, Finger Signals, Flash Cards, Quotations, The Pre-Theoretic Intuitions Quiz, Puzzles/Paradoxes, Discussion, Note Comparison/Sharing, and Evaluation of Another Student's Work. These activities surely increase the capacity of student to indulge in the active learning. A student must effectively utilize these techniques to get answers for the real life problems. (Svinicki, M. 2002,) Collaborative learning is another form of cooperative learning, but it is different in implementing the classroom strategies. The lecturer and the student must work together to achieve the common task. The instructors have to collaborate with the student to produce the effective presentation in the classroom. Techniques like active reviews in the classrooms, solving problems in the blackboard, mapping the learning concepts to the real life issues, group projects, and games with other students and debating with the instructor regarding the particular topic surely improve the progress of the student performance both in the life as well as in the academic. Feedback of the instructor definitely improves the teaching ability of the teacher. These feedbacks surely give a lot of boosts to the students as well as to the instructor. Providing perfect learning objectives to the students is a good ethical practice by the instructor. Feedback lectures are designed around a supplementary study guide that provides the students with learning objectives, assigned readings, pre- and post-tests, and in some instances, an outline of the lecture notes. The format of the contact session consists of two 20-minute mini-lectures which are separated by a study session. During the study session, students form dyads or triads and discuss the questions provided by the instructor or the study guide. Eighty-eight percent of students surveyed indicated that they preferred this format over the straight lecture (5). The disadvantage to the instructor is the extensive planning and preparation required to implement this teaching strategy. Legal Issues in teaching and learning As a teacher he/she has more and more legal responsibilities. Each and every aspects of teacher profession are very closely related to legal matters. Like use of computer software, school visits, health and safety, photocopying, punishments, discipline, equal opportunities, duties of care, supervision, total number of hours worked, physical restraint, assessment, reporting, and school uniform. The school teachers pay and condition Act of 1994 is an example for legal obligation which is specifically for teachers. This Act is regularly updated once in a year. The legal issues in teaching includes marking and setting work, tracking, reporting and assessing on the progress of the students, planning and preparing lessons, promoting the improvement of students, providing the proper guidance to the students according to their educational and social related matters, healthy communication with the parents and outside bodies correlated to the particular student, allowing the reviews of their own teaching, participating in management and administration activities, supervision and registration of students, attending assemblies, working 195 days and 1265 hours in school year and finally spending personal time on lesson and teaching programs preparation. In teaching profession duty of care for student is the significant responsibility of a teacher. Criminal law, statute law, common law and civil all apply to teachers also. For example according to civil law act if negligence is proven then the victim can demand compensation for the actions of offender. Such duty of care law is based on few important factors. Teachers are in Loco Parentis. That is they are in the position of parents in protecting the child. Of course teacher has many children in the class room than a mother and father has at home. This is slightly confusing that circumstance is completely different in home, school and in between teacher and parent. It is the basic reason for development of home schools. Education institution is completely responsible for the safety and security of students. The duty of care established by secure supervision of students and also giving room for their independent learning, demonstration of exploration and creativity. (Emily Payne, 2009) The age, maturity and ability of student also should be in consideration. The legal issues in teaching such as duty of care are highly influenced by the students? age, ability and development stage. According to children act 1989 teachers can do all reasonable immediate action to safe guard and promote the welfare of the student. In case of discussing legal issues in learning first consideration is assessment and placement. In fact the unethical practices of teacher are concern to be legal problem for student in learning. In learning process its student?s rights to expect guidance from his tutor or teacher and he/she should analyze the potential trouble of the student to solve and it is necessary to develop a good circumstance for the student to learn independently. If student struggle to learn because of unclear description of teachers then it is a legal issues in learning. Instructors should ensure that he/she using direct language to explain the procedures and policies, especially in assessing, instructing and placing. It is a responsibility of educator to provide clear information and assurance of no unintended harm. In matter of assessment and placement two important issues are considered, the methodology of assessment should be suitable to the student population and should also match the placement program through which student get placed. The process of describing the objective of placement and assessment is very important in learning aspects and relevant information must be accessible by the student. Finally if instructional techniques of the educator refuse the students constitutional rights then it is a legal issue in learning according to the position of student.