Various things affect the police personnel, but I have chosen to talk about corruption and domestic violence. Police corruption can be defined as a police misconduct which is designed to obtain career advancement, financial gains, and other personal benefits. A common form of corruption shown by police is acceptance of bribes with a purpose of not reporting prostitution rings, organized drug rings, or any illegal activities. Corrupt acts by police officers are classified as follows. Shakedowns: this is where a police officer accepts bribes for the purpose of not pursuing a criminal violation. Corruption of authority: whereby police officers receive free meals, drinks, and any other form of free gratuities. Kickbacks: police officers receive payment for referring people to other businesses. Protection of illegal activity: where police receive bribes from operators of illegal activities to protect them by keeping them in operation. Fixing; this is withholding of evidence or failure to appear at hearings in judicial cases either as a personal favor or for bribery. Internal payoffs: buying and selling of holidays and shift days in law enforcement organization. The ‘frame up’: additional of evidence in cases such as drugs. Finally we have, ticket fixing: this is where police officers favor family and friends by cancelling traffic tickets (Finnane, 1990).
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These corruption activities by police happen secretly so it is hard to accurately determine the level of prevalence of police corruption. There are various impacts of police corruption as highlighted below. Officers who are found to have engaged themselves in corruption incur a lot of costs. The costs are: legal, financial, reputation damage, loss of friendships, job loss, and damage in their relationships. The families and friends to the officer found involving in corruption, suffer in their own. Their reputation and standing in the family in the community, is damaged (Finnane 1990). The police organization experiences its own share of the damages caused by police corruption. Their reputation is damaged as a professional body, morale of the members and as an employer. Loss of credibility, with the community that it is supposed to serve, is a severe damage as police rely on them in prevention of crime. The community will less likely support them if they lose confidence in them. The organization also loses confidence from the public, and the government experiences pressure from the community. The cost of police corruption can be weighed both in social and financial terms. Financial costs include: disrupted cases at court, furthering of criminal activities, and public money misspent on the ineffective corrupt officers. Socially, the effects are felt in the ongoing criminal behaviors and the effect of social well being. It is evident that the effect of police corruption is far way much greater than any individual gain (Finnane, 1990).
Various measures can be put into place to reduce police corruption. The police agencies themselves are the ones supposed to control corruption but the local community needs to support them. The public should be educated about the effects of corruption by the police. The community can establish review boards for the police agencies, and investigative bodies to keep an eye on them. The police subculture of overlooking and condoning the officer who are corrupt by other members should also change. During training of recruits, more should be enforced on corruption and its effects. Monitoring and control of police use of appropriate police style in enforcing law would reduce police corruption since it is hard to completely solve the problem (Finnane, 1990).
Domestic violence is also another factor that affects police personnel. It can be elaborated as a pattern of behaviors that are abusive by either one or both of the partners involved in a relationship that is intimate. There are various forms of domestic violence which are highlighted below: physical aggression, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, intimidation, stalking, and economical deprivation. These forms of domestic violence have one common goal: to maintain and to gain control over the victims (Johnson, 1991). Victims of police violence are often vulnerable because, the officers abusing them have guns, they know the locations of shelters for the battered women and they how to avoid penalties by manipulating the system. Receiving of exceedingly light discipline promotes or encourages domestic violence by police officers. Violent officers are often promoted rather than expelled which is also another factor that promotes this norm. There is also lack of enforcement which undermines the effectiveness of law. There are various causes of domestic violence as listed below: psychological, jealousness, mental illness, marital conflicts and social theories. Effects of domestic violence are more or likely the same as the ones caused by the corruption as explained previously (Johnson, 1991).
Domestic violence can be handled or managed by various ways. Medical response can be used to handle both to those who experience the abuse and those who cause it. Medical professionals can empower people; provide advice to those affected by domestic violence. Law enforcement should also help in curbing domestic violence. Penalties should be given to anybody found guilty of domestic violence and light punishments should not be given. This serves as a warning to an example to those who think of practicing domestic violence. Affected people should be provided with counseling, this is to help them get through it well and to know the cause of the problem. Offenders also need counseling to help in minimizing his/her risks for future violence. Community organizations can be implemented in order to prevent and intervene by, offering safe shelter, advocacy, crisis intervention and prevention programs (Johnson, 1991).