Table of Contents
These are governmental laws that are placed to reduce crime cases in the society. Security of the public is the key responsibility that the government always wants to maintain. The federal and other security entities get involved in ensuring that the public security is achieved. Crime control policies need law implementation from the criminal justice system. This requires the support of the law courts and police stations (Cullen, 2010). Most policies are politically feasible. This is so because the policies are always made in a political environment. Public policies for the control of crime are a broad collection of information by a group of criminologists. The strength of these policies is when the crime control takes a political feasible approach.
On biological basis, criminal behavior takes a genetic and psycho physiological angle. Criminal control policies in most countries are never guided. Most programs are normally guided because the have ideas. The ideas that they poses are mostly about the causes of crime. Crimes like war robbery become common if not quickly managed by the federal. Phone calls if not also regulated in some cases, it is normally misused and leads to crime incidences (Kraska, 2004). Today, many people have been put to prison due to different misconduct in their lives. Due to managed security systems in place, today the crimes have been managed.
Psychological understanding of criminality
Criminal psychology is the study of criminal’s reactions, thoughts and intentions. This study may start at an early stage even before someone commits the real crime and goes down to what makes him commit a particular crime. This assist in predicting crime and preventing them at the initial stage before it occurs (Newburn, 2004). This can be controlled by arresting the suspect. It is not true always that the suspect is a criminal. It is at this point that there are laws that protect suspects from harassment. It is said that one is guilty only when he has been proven guilty. It is important to estimate crime rate in order to predict recidivism. Recidivism is the probabilities of future crime happenings. The rate of crime varies in terms of gender, age and crime type. There are mostly other possible issues about specific individuals that may lead to crime. Factors like fetal alcohol syndrome may lead to automatic crime.
Biological imbalance may also lead to crime. When this has been predicted, it is important to find out early solutions on how best to prevent the crime before the crime happens. Mental disorderliness can also lead to crime and incase a person has been detected in the society to be mentally challenged, it is important to take early precautions. The individual can be eliminated from the crowd and placed in a closed room o avoid crime incidences (Cullen, 2010). The psychological theories are very important because it assist in understanding human behaviours. The accuracy of the theory varies depending on the psychologist. There have been some critics about the relationship between psychology and crime. Most criticizers say that psychology and psychiatry in most cases have been treating crime as an identity. Several psychological researches have led to good understanding of crime.
Sociological understanding of criminality
Sociology is the study of human personal characters. This theory focuses on the human characters and their social life and how they are affected by different social structures and various interactions. It is normal for any human being to interact and this cannot be controlled. This interaction is what affects the behavior of the individuals in the run. Social phenomena study in most cases it leads to sociological perspective. This is a way of understanding best the human characters in a social perspective (Barkan, & Bryiak, 2009). In this theory it analyses how most people are affected by the society due to their normal interactions. There are normally social groups that people are mostly associated with. These are the people who share same culture and beliefs. It does not really matter on the outcome of social policy in criminology. The most important aspect here is recognizing the media and how to explain the crime that has occurred. Social institutions can also be used to campaign reducecriminal cases in the society. Such institutions include schools, churches and extended families. From a lot of research that has been carried out, it has been discovered that there is no known cause of crime as far as sociology is concerned (Meyer, & Coester, 2008). There are whoever some sociology factors that make one to understand why one would engage himself into crime. In a society, there are people with different characters and there are some that are commonly found in crime while others are never engaged in crime completely (Kraska, 2004). This theory is more of a model than a theory like the other theories. It is common to here people say that rap music leads to crime cases.
As much as every individual may have his or her own definition on issues like economy, crime and others like education, the word theory has its own special meaning in the social science. From the perspective of criminal justice, this theory basically consists of social events that in some cases may lead to crime. In the model of social policy, the process begins where crime is associated mostly with poverty. After investigations, there are activities of investigations that will lead to the building of the process. After complete investigation, the process is concluded with proper information at hand. An individual’s life history is known so as to be able to predict any future crime by the individual. There have been many contemporary theories that have mostly criminal characters that are incomplete. It is not a guarantee that the crime control strategies will have an accurate mechanism (Levesque, 2006). Analyzing typically, most poor societies are the ones that have more crime incidences. Criminology which is the study of criminal behaviors is just but a branch of sociology. This means that sociology is much broader than criminology. In sociology, there are two theories that apply. These are the functionalist and the social conflict.
Social conflict talks about the deviance by mostly targeting the individual’s characters and various groups in the society. These social groups may sometime even interfere with official statistics that relates to crime or they may influence the top officials in the society. Most people engage in crime due to the influence from their friends in the society (Hewitt, & Regoli, 1996). The people actually learn so as to engage in crime. This makes them come to accept that crime is something that is adorable. An individual can influence his partner in crime through giving them punishment and enforcing the behavior in them. Reinforcement that is positive always leads to good characters whereas a negative reinforcement always leads to a bad character. For instance if someone calls his friend a coward just because the individual has refused to take drugs with him, the individual will be forced to start taking so that he is not called a coward again. From the social learning theory, people learn to get involved in crime just the same way they will learn other behaviors (Rafter, 2008). There are some crimes which one just needs to learn through observation. Crimes like wrestling, one can learn through observing media.
Biological understanding of criminality
Biological theories deal with genetics of the criminal behaviors. This theory basically deals with the changes in the behavior of a criminal and his genes. The genes are believed to be inherited from one generation to another (Smith, 2005). Geneticists focused mainly on the individuals characters and how the individual interacts with other people in the society. Most theorists have believed that there is a specific gene that always causes criminal behaviors. This believes is mostly considered positivistic. Determinism is whereby women grow up with a deficit in their traits. Some who are born with the traits then the trait is mostly not manageable. This makes them have a free choice attitude thus making them have a disastrous behavior (Hewitt, & Regoli, 1996). Positivism on the other hand is a scientific method that is mostly used to define humans’ behaviors. It is assumed that these behaviors cannot be managed by human beings. It is assumed that there are some forces that are normally human control. This force is both structural and biological making one to get involved in crime.
Biological theories is positive in that, as much as it claims that it contributes to criminal behaviors, the theory remains for change. It does not specify if the behavior can be managed or not. This makes the theory remain manageable (Levesque, 2006). This theory leads to a rehabilitation approach in curbing crime in the society. Both biological and structural approaches lead to criminal cases. Structural leads in the sense that, if children who are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can be reduced, this can reduce crime cases because such children mostly turn out as criminals. There are structural processes that manage abnormal pathology (Abadinsky, 2009).
As much as most antisocial people are always criminals, structural theory provides that, not all antisocial people are criminals. This means that, criminal incidences are mostly influenced by antisocial people in the society. In order to determine the causes of criminal behaviors, biological and structural approaches are integrated. From different that have been conducted nurture and nature are always linked together to get the association of criminology. It is therefore evident that both biological and structural theories have played a role in improving the criminology theory. The two theories both have an influence to the bad behavior in the society. In social character, social factors in biology influence the structural theory. Debates have to be initiated in order to make genuine decisions on the issue of biological approach on criminal policies.
The criminal control system is in control of security in the public. It is much expensive to have many people in the hospital. This is because, the prisoner needs to be maintained and to get funds for this maintenance comes from people’s tax. If there are less people in prison, this tax can be used to other developing projects and healthcare services may be sponsored to the poor households. Crime can be so endemic to the society and this needs to be reduced at all cost. There has been a revolution in crime cases and the security in charge need to know the ever changing technology in crime. The most common crime is mostly the technological crime. The government should equip themselves with very sophisticated gadgets of detecting this crime knowhow. All the above models are very important and it assists in detecting crime and controlling it at an early stage.
Building of rehabilitation centers is one of the methods that will assist in controlling crime that are mostly biological (Barkan, & Bryiak, 2009). There are some people who inherit certain characters and they cannot be in a position of controlling them. Rehabilitation centers have assisted most of them by passing them through life lessons and allowing them to learn new good characters slowly by slowly. Under sociological crimes, when these people have been detained in a certain center, they may not be able to socialize with other people freely. This makes it difficult for the society to be affected by the wrong characters. It has been discovered that, when one socializes with a certain culture, in the long run he ends up adopting their beliefs and characters.
It is also important to put in place community policing to ensure that the citizens are confident with the security in place (Abadinsky, 2009). Community policing also assists the police to detect new upcoming wrong characters at an early stage unlike paramilitary policing. Placing patrol stations at different joints in the society enhances security. The police can quickly handle the crime case faster and in a proper manner. All these models have a link to each other and they are all equally important. There have been several critics whereby some people doubt the psychological understanding of crime. The critics insist that one cannot really detect if one is about to commit a crime. The research has proved that, when one is about to commit a crime, he is normally antisocial and in most cases, he may try to avoid being in public. It is therefore very vital to uphold all the three understanding to be in a position to reduce crime in the society. These are normally implemented by different concerned bodies to be able to make them work effectively. Each theory has its own challenge but when used together the weakness of one theory is the strength of the other making this an effective method of reducing crime.